Chert Gravel and Neogene Drainage in East-Central Kansas

Authors

  • James S. Aber

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17161/cres.v0i240.11776

Keywords:

keyword

Abstract

Eastern Kansas has an active geomorphic regime dominated by stream erosion, which is strongly influenced by bedrock structure. Alluvial deposits of chert gravel of presumed Neogene age are widespread and abundant on hill tops and high terraces throughout the region. Many of these gravels contain quartzite and other exotic pebbles derived from western sources. Geographic information system (GIS) techniques are used to document and analyze the spatial distribution of upland chert gravel deposits. On this basis, Neogene drainage routes may be recognized for the ancestral Arkansas, ancestral Verdigris, ancestral Neosho, and ancestral Marais des Cygnes. These drainages bore little resemblance in position or direction to the modern rivers. Stream captures, valley entrenchment, and wholesale inversion of topography led to the modern drainage systems. During entrenchment, streams have shifted systematically southward and eastward, possibly as a result of long-term and continuing crustal tilting (neotectonism) down toward the Gulf of Mexico.

 

References

Aber, J. S., 1985, Quartzite-bearing gravels and drainage development in eastern Kansas: Nebraska Academy of Sciences, Institute for Tertiary-Quaternary Studies, TERQUA Symposium Series, v. 1, p. 105–110

Aber, J. S., 1988, Upland chert gravels of east-central Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Guidebook Series 6, p. 17–19

Aber, J. S., 1990, Chert gravel, Neogene drainage development, and neotectonism in the Neosho and Walnut drainage basins of eastern Kansas: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 22, no. 7, p. A372–373

Aber, J. S., 1991, Surficial geology of Butler County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 91-48, 31 p

Aber, J. S., 1992, Chert gravel, drainage development, and sinkholes in the Walnut basin, south-central Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 95, p. 109–121

Aber, J. S., 1993, Geological map of Butler County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Map M-30, scale 1:50,000, 2 sheets

Aber, J. S., Byerley, R. D., and Rand, L. L., 1995, Neogene drainage evolution in southeastern Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Abstracts, v. 14, p. 7

Aber, J. S., Spellman, E. E., Webster, M. P., and Rand, L. L., 1997, Applications of Landsat imagery in the Great Plains: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 100, p. 47–60

Byerley, R. D., 1995, Chert gravel sources, hydrology, transportation, and deposition within the lower Neosho River, southeastern Kansas: M.S. thesis, Emporia State University, 79 p

Frye, J. C., 1955, The erosional history of the Flint Hills: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 58, p. 79–86

Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1952, Pleistocene geology of Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 99, 230 p

Madole, R. F., Ferring, C. R., Guccione, M. J., Hall, S. A., Johnson, W. C., and Sorenson, C. J., 1991, Quaternary geology of the Osage Plains and Interior Highland: Geological Society America, Geology of North America K-2, p. 503– 546

Mudge, B. F., 1875, Geology of Kansas: Kansas State Board of Agriculture, 4th Annual Report, p. 107–127

Neill, J. T., 1981, Soil survey of Lyon County, Kansas. U.S

Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey Report, 96 p

O’Conner, H. G., 1953, Geology, mineral resources, and groundwater resources of Lyon County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, v. 12, part 1, p. 5–24

Penner, H. L., Ekart, S. C., Ewing, D. A., Schmidt, G., and Smith, J., 1975, Soil survey of Butler County, Kansas: U.S

Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 60 p

Seevers, W. J., and Jungmann, W. L., 1963, Terrace development along Marais des Cygnes and Neosho River valley, Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 66, p. 393–396

Swanson, D. W., and Googins, R. L., 1977, Soil survey of Woodson County, Kansas: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey Report, 67 p

Wooster, L. C., 1934, The chert gravels of Lyon County, Kansas: Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions, v. 37, p. 157–159.

Downloads

Published

1997-08-20