A Review of the Stratigraphy of the Ogallala Formation and Revision of Neogene (“Tertiary”) Nomenclature in Kansas
The member names for the Ogallala Formation (including the Valentine, Ash Hollow, and Kimball) in Kansas of Zeller (1968) are abandoned. The Ogallala Formation in Kansas includes strata of Miocene and earliest Pliocene age, revising earlier correlation to the Pliocene only (Zeller, 1968). The Kansas Geological Survey is abandoning use of the term "Tertiary," to be replaced by the term "Neogene." International stage boundaries for the Neogene have not been established in Kansas.
Alroy, J., 2000, New methods for quantifying macroevolutionary patterns and processes: Paleobiology, v. 26, p. 707-733.
Arduino, G., 1759, Lettera seconda sopre varie osservazioni fatti in diversi parti del territorio di Vicenza, ed altrove, appartenenti alla teoria terrestre, ed alla mineralogía. Venezia.
Bartley, K. J., 2005, A taphonomic study of Clarendonian (Miocene) Teleoceras (Perissodactyla, Rhinocerotoidea) from the Ogallala Formation, northwestern Kansas: M.S. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 122 p.; American Geological Institute, GeoRef Accession No. 2007-041818.
Bell, C. J., and Repenning, C. A., 1999, Observations on dental variation in Microtus from the Cudahy ash pit fauna, Meade County, Kansas and implications for Irvingtonian microtine rodent biochronology: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 19, p. 757-766.
Berggren, W. A., Hilgen, F. J., Langereis, C. G., Kent, D. V., Obradovich, J. D., Raffi, I., Raymo, M. E., and Shackleton, N. J., 1995, Late Neogene (Pliocene-Pleistocene) chronology--New perspectives in high-resolution stratigraphy: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 107, no. 11, p. 1,272-1,287.
Berggren, W. A., 1998, The Cenozoic Era--Lyellian (chrono)stratigraphy and nomenclatural reform at the millennium; in, The Past is the Key to the Present, D. J. Blundell and A. C. Scott, eds.: Geological Society, London, Special Publications 143, p. 111-132; also reprinted in 2005 in Stratigraphy, v. 2, no. 1, p. 1-12.
Boellstorff, J., 1976, The succession of late Cenozoic volcanic ashes of the Great Plains--A progress report; in, Guidebook, 24th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Friends of the Pleistocene, C. K. Bayne, ed.: Kansas Geological Survey, Guidebook Series 1, p. 37-71. [available online]
Boellstorff, J., 1978, Chronology of some late Cenozoic deposits from the central United States and the Ice Ages: Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Science, v. 6, p. 35-49.
Carey, J. S., Frye, J. C., Plummer, N., and Swineford, A., 1952, Kansas volcanic ash resources: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 96, Part 1, 68 p. [available online]
Carter, B. J., Ward, P. A., III, and Shannon, J.T., 1990, Soil and geomorphic evolution within the Rolling Red Plains using Pleistocene volcanic ash deposits: Geomorphology, v. 3, p. 471-488.
Chapin, C. E., 2008, Interplay of oceanographic and paleoclimate events with tectonism during middle to late Miocene sedimentation across the southwestern USA: Geosphere, v. 4, p. 976-991.
Cowie, J. W., and Bassett, M. G., 1989, 1989 global stratigraphic chart with geochronometric and magnetostratigraphic calibration: Episodes, v. 12, no. 2, 1 sheet.
Darnell, M. K., and Thomasson, J. R., 2007, First equid remains from the Late Miocene Prolithospermum jonstonii-Nasella pohlii assemblage zone stratotype locality, Elllis County, Kansas: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 110, p. 10-15.
Darton, N. H., 1899, Relations of Tertiary formations in the western Nebraska region: American Geologist, v. 23, 94 p.
Desnoyers, J., 1829, Observations sur un ensemble de dépôts marins plus récents que les terrains tertiaries du Bassin de la Seine, et constituant une formation géologique districte--Précédées d'un aperçu de la non-simulanéité des bassins tertiares: Annales scientifiques naturelles, Paris, v. 16, p. 171-214, 402-491.
Diffendal, R. F., Jr., 1982, Regional implications of the geology of the Ogallala Group (upper Tertiary) of southwestern Morrill County, Nebraska, and adjacent areas: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 93, p. 964-976.
Eaton, G. P., 2008, Epeirogeny in the southern Rocky Mountains region--Evidence and origin: Geosphere, v. 4, p. 764-784.
Emslie, S. D., 2007, Fossil passerines from the early Pliocene of Kansas and the evolution of songbirds in North America: The Auk, v. 124, p. 85-95.
Elias, M. K., 1942, Tertiary prairie grasses and other herbs from the high plains: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 41, 176 p.
Eshelman, R. E., 1975, Geology and paleontology of the Early Pleistocene (Late Blancan) White Rock fauna from north-central Kansas: The Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, Papers on Paleontology No. 13, 59 p.
Evernden, J. F., Savage, D. E., Curtis, G. H., and James, G. T., 1964, Potassium-argon dates and the Cenozoic mammalian chronology of North America: American Journal of Science, v. 262, p. 145-198.
Flowers, R. M., Wenicke, B. P., and Farley, K. A., 2008, Unroofing, incision, and uplift history of the southwestern Colorado Plateau from apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 120, p. 571-587.
Frye, J. C., 1950, Origin of Kansas Great Plains depressions: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 86, pt. 1, p. 1-20. [available online]
Frye, J. C., Leonard, A. B., and Swineford, A., 1956, Stratigraphy of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) of northern Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 118, 92 p. [available online]
Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1959, Correlation of the Ogallala Formation (Neogene) in western Texas with the type localities in Nebraska: University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations No. 39, 46 p.
Gradstein, F. M., and Ogg, J. G., 1996, A Phanerozoic time scale: Episodes, v. 19, no. 1-2, p. 3-5.
Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., and Smith, A. G., 2004, A geologic time scale 2004: Cambridge University Press, 589 p.
Gradstein, F. M., Ogg, J. G., Smith, A. G., Bleeker, W., and Lourens, L. J., 2004, A new geologic time scale, with special reference to Precambrian and Neogene: Episodes, v. 27, no. 2, p. 83-100.
Harland, W. B., Armstrong, R., Cox, A. V., Craig, L., Smith, A., and Smith, D., 1990, A geological time scale 1989: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 263 p.
Head, M. J., Gibbard, P., and Salvador, A., 2008, The Tertiary--A proposal for its formal definition: Episodes, v. 31, no. 2, p. 248-250.
Hilgen, F., Aziz, H. A., Bice, D., Iaccarino, S., Krijgsman, W., Kuiper, K., Montanari, A., Raffi, I., Turco, E., and Zachariasse, W.-J., 2005, The global boundary stratotype section and point (GSSP) of the Tortonian Stage (Upper Miocene) at Monte Dei Corvi: Episodes, v. 28, no. 1, p. 6-17.
Hörnes, M., 1853, Mitteilung an Professor Bronn gerichtet: Wien, 3 Oktober 1853. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie, Geognosie und Petrefaktenkunde, p. 806-810.
Izett, G. A., 1981, Volcanic ash beds--Recorders of upper Cenozoic silicic pyroclastic volcanism in the western United States: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 88, p. 10,200-10,222.
Izett, G. A., Wilcox, R. E., Power, H. A., and Desborough, G. A., 1970, The Bishop ash bed--A Pleistocene marker bed in the western United States: Quaternary Research, v. 1, p. 121-132.
Izett, G. A., and Wilcox, R. E., 1982, Map showing localities and inferred distributions of the Huckleberry Ridge, Mesa Falls, and Lava Creek Ash Beds (Pearlette Family Ash Beds) of Pliocene and Pleistocene age in the western United States and southern Canada: U.S. Geological Survey, Map I-1325.
Izett, G. A., and Honey, J. G., 1995, Geologic map of the Irish Flats NE quadrangle, Meade County, Kansas: U.S. Geological Survey, Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map I-2498, 1 sheet, scale 1:24,000.
Kansas Geological Survey, 2008, Surficial geology of Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Map M-118, 1:500,000 scale.
Liggett, G. A., 1997, The Beckerdite local biota (early Hemphillian) and the first Tertiary occurrence of a crocodilian from Kansas: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 100, p. 101-108.
Lim, J. D., and Martin, L. D., 2001, A new species of Leptarctus (Mustelidae) from the Miocene of Kansas: Neues Jahrbuch fur Geologie und Palaeontologie, Monatshefte 2001(10), p. 633-640.
Lindsay, E. H., 1995, Copemys and the Barstovian/Hemingfordian boundary: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 15, p. 357-365.
Lindsay, E. H., Opdyke, N. D., and Johnson, N. M., 1984, Blancan-Hemphillian land mammal ages and late Cenozoic mammal dispersal events: Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences, v. 12, p. 445-488.
Lugn, A. L., 1939, Classification of the Tertiary System in Nebraska: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 50, p. 1,245-1,276.
Macfarlane, P. A., 2009, New insights into the hydrostratigraphy of the High Plains aquifer from three-dimensional visualizations based on well records: Geosphere, v. 5, p. 51-58.
Martin, R. A., Honey, J. G., Peláez-Campomanes, P., Goodwin, H. T., Baskin, J. A., and Zakrzewski, R. J., 2002, Blancan lagomorphs and rodents of the Deer Park assemblages, Meade County, Kansas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 76, p. 1,072-1,090.
Martin, R. A., Hurt, R. T., Honey, J. G., and Peláez-Campomanes, P., 2003, Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene rodents from the northern Borchers badlands (Meade County, Kansas), with comments on the Blancan-Irvingtonian boundary in the Meade Basin: Journal of Paleontology, v. 77, p. 985-1,001.
Martin, R. A., Paláez-Campomanes, P., Honey, J. G., Fox, D. L., Zakrzewski, R. J., Albright, L. B., Lindsay, E. H., Opdyke, N. D., and Goodwin, H. T., 2008, Rodent community change at the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition in southwestern Kansas and identification of the Microtus immigration event on the central Great Plains: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 267, p. 196-207.
Moore, R. C., Frye, J. C., and Jewett, J. M., 1944, Tabular description of outcropping rocks in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 52, pt. 4, p. 137-212. [available online]
Mullin, T. C., 2005, Teleoceras fossiger (Rhinocerotidae; Mammalia) from two late Miocene (early Hemphillian) quarries from Kansas: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 37, no. 7, p. 133.
Naeser, C. W., Izett, G. A., and Wilcox, R. E., 1973, Zircon fission-track ages of Pearlette family ash beds in Meade County, Kansas: Geology, v. 1, p. 187-189.
Naumann, C. F., 1866, Lehrbuch der Geognosie (second edition): Leipzig, Engelmann, v. 3, p. 1-192.
Ogg, J. G., Ogg, G., and Gradstein, F. M., 2008, The concise geologic time scale: Cambridge University Press, 177 p.
Perkins, M. E., 1998, Tephrochronologic and volcanologic studies of silicic fallout tuffs in Miocene basins of the northern Basin and Range Province, U.S.A.: Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 206 p.; UMI Dissertation Services, Microform No. 9913253, Ann Arbor, MI.
Perkins, M. E., Diffendal, R. F., Jr., and Voorhies, M. R., 1995a, Tephrochronology of the Ash Hollow Formation (Ogallala Group)--Northern High Plains: Geological Society of America, Abstracts with Programs, v. 27, no. 3, p. 79.
Perkins, M. E., Nash, W. P., Brown, F. H., and Fleck, R. J., 1995b, Fallout tuffs of Trapper Creek, Idaho--A record of Miocene explosive volcanism in the Snake River Plain volcanic province: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 107, p. 1,484-1,506.
Potter, S. L., 1991, Geologic characteristics of the Calvert ash bed, Ogallala Group (Miocene), western Kansas: M.S. thesis, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas; American Geological Institute, GeoRef Accession No. 1994-056771.
Remane, J. (compiler), 2000, International stratigraphic chart, with explanatory note: International Union of Geological Sciences and Earth Sciences division of UNESCO, 16 p., 1 plate.
Rose, W. I., Riley, C. M., and Dartevelle, S., 2003, Sizes and shapes of 10-Ma distal fall pyroclasts in the Ogallala Group, Nebraska: Journal of Geology, v. 111, p. 115-124.
Salvador, A., 2006a, A stable Cenozoic geologic time scale is indispensable: Episodes, v. 29, no. 1, p. 43-45.
Salvador, A., 2006b, The Tertiary and the Quaternary are here to stay: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Bulletin, v. 90, no. 1, p. 21-30.
Seni, S. J., 1980, Sand-body geometry and depositional systems, Ogallala Formation, Texas: University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations No. 105, 36 p.
Skinner, M. F., Skinner, S. M., and Gooris, R. J., 1968, Cenozoic rocks and faunas of Turtle Butte, south-central South Dakota: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 138, article 7, p. 379-436.
Steadman, D. W., 1981, A re-examination of Paleostruthus hacheri (Shufeldt), a late Miocene sparrow from Kansas: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 1, p. 171-173.
Steininger, F. F., Aubry, M. P., Berggren, W. A., Biolzi, M., Borsetti, A. M., Cartlidge, J. E., Cati, F., Corfeld, R., Gelati, R., Iaccarino, S., Napoleone, C., Ottner, F., Rögl, F., Roetzel, R., Spezzaferri, S., Tateo, F., Villa, G., and Zevenboom, D., 1997, The global stratotype section and point (GSSP) for the base of the Neogene: Episodes, v. 20, no. 1, p. 23-28.
Swineford, A., and Frye, J. C., 1946, Petrographic comparison of Pliocene and Pleistocene volcanic ash from western Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 64, pt. 1, p. 1-32. [available online]
Swineford, A., Frye, J. C., and Leonard, A. B., 1955, Petrography of the late Tertiary ash falls in the central Great Plains: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 25, p. 243-261.
Swineford, A., Leonard, A. B., and Frye, J. C., 1958, Petrology of the pisolitic limestone in the Great Plains: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 130, pt. 2, p. 97-116. [available online]
Swinehart, J. B., 1974, Ogallala stratigraphy of southwest Nebraska--A proposal: Nebraska Academy of Science Program, p. 36-37.
Thomasson, J. R., 1979, Late Cenozoic grasses and other angiosperms from Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado--Biostratigraphy and relationships to living taxa: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 218, 68 p. [available online]
Thomasson, J. R., 1990, Fossil plants from the late Miocene Ogallala Formation of central North America--Possible paleoenvironmental and biostratigraphic significance; in, Geologic Framework and Regional Hydrology--Upper Cenozoic Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations, Great Plains, T. C. Gustavson, ed.: University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Symposium Publication No. 6, p. 99-114.
Thomasson, J. R., 2005, Berriochloa gabeli and Berriochloa huletti (Gramineae:Stipeae), two new grass species from the late Miocene Ash Hollow of Nebraska and Kansas: Journal of Paleontology, v. 79, p. 185-199.
Thomasson, J. R., Zakrzewski, R. J., LaGarry, H. E., and Mergen, D. E., 1990, A late Miocene (late early Hemphillian) biota from northwestern Kansas: National Geographic Research, v. 6, no. 2, p. 231-244.
Van Couvering, J. A., Castradori, D., Cita, M. B., Hilgen, F. J., and Rio, D., 2000, The base of the Zanclean Stage and of the Pliocene Series: Episodes, v. 23, no. 3, p. 179-187.
Wallace, S. C., 1997, Mammals of the Rhino Hill West local fauna, Miocene (Hemphillian), Wallace County, Kansas: M.S. thesis, Fort Hays State University, Hays, Kansas, 142 p.
Walsh, S. L., 2005, The role of stratotypes in stratigraphy--Part 3, The Wood committee, the Berkeley school of North American mammalian stratigraphic paleontology, and the status of provincial golden spikes: Earth-Science Reviews, v. 70, p. 75-101.
Ward, P. A., III, Carter, B. J., and Weaver, B., 1993, Volcanic ashes--Time markers in soil parent materials of the southern plains: Soil Science Society of America Journal, v. 57, p. 453-460.
Ward, P. A., III, and Carter, B. J., 1998, Paleopedologic interpretations of soils buried by Tertiary and Pleistocene-age volcanic ashes--South-central Kansas, western Oklahoma, and northwestern Texas, USA: Quaternary International, v. 51-52, p. 213-221.
Wood, H. E., Chaney, R. W., Clark, J., Colbert, E. H., Jepsen, G. L., Reeside, J. B., and Stock, C., 1941, Nomenclature and classification of the North American continental Tertiary: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 52, p. 1-48.
Woodburne, M. O., 1977, Definition and characterization in mammalian chronostratigraphy: Journal of Paleontology, v. 51, p. 220-234.
Woodburne, M. O., 1996, Precision and resolution in mammalian chronostratigraphy--Principles, practices, examples: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 16, p. 531-555.
Zakrzewski, R. J., 1981, Kangaroo rats form the Borchers local fauna, Blancan, Meade County, Kansas: Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, v. 84, p. 78-88.
Zakrzewski, R. J., 1988, Plio-Pleistocene rocks, Borchers badlands, Meade County, southwestern Kansas: Geological Society of America, Centennial Field Guide--South-central Section, p. 69-74.
Zakrzewski, R. J., 1990, Biostratigraphy of fossil mammals from the Ogallala (Miocene) of north-central Kansas; in, Geologic Framework and Regional Hydrology--Upper Cenozoic Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations, Great Plains, T. C. Gustavson, ed.: University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Symposium Publication No. 6, p. 98.
Zakrzewski, R. J., 1991, New species of Blancan woodrat (Cricetidae) from north-central Kansas: Journal of Mammalogy, v. 72, p. 104-109.
Zeller, D. E., ed., 1968, The stratigraphic succession in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 189, 81 p. [available online]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors can view article download statistics for published articles within their accounts.