Utility of Ground-Penetrating Radar in Near-Surface, High-Resolution Imaging of Lansing-Kansas City (Pennsylvanian) Limestone Reservoir Analogs

Authors

  • Alex Martinez Kansas Geological Survey
  • Joseph M. Kruger Kansas Geological Survey
  • Evan K. Franseen Kansas Geological Survey

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17161/cres.v0i241.11830

Keywords:

keyword

Abstract

High-resolution ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a subsurface imaging tool that can extend results gained from studies of reservoir-analog outcrops and add detailed information about reservoir analogs that is unavailable from either seismic data or well control alone. Integration of GPR-reflection information and outcrop photomosaics allowed detailed study of subtle changes in lithology and bedding surfaces by comparing lateral and vertical changes in GPR-reflection character with outcrop features. Outcrops are valuable for confirming interpretations of reflections and providing velocity information for the GPR data. Outcrops of two Lansing-Kansas City Group limestone units, the Captain Creek Limestone and the Plattsburg Limestone, were used as test sites to determine the vertical imaging resolution, penetration depth, and reflection character of high-frequency (500 MHz) GPR in interbedded carbonate and shale units, where the carbonate units contained thin interbeds of shale. Features as small as 0.1-0.2 m (0.3-0.7 ft)--including major architectural elements (such as major and minor bounding surfaces) and internal features (such as fractures, internal bedding, and crossbedding)--were successfully imaged and confirmed by outcrop data. Variations in GPR-reflection character between geologic units allowed recognition of argillaceous limestone units in the subsurface. Although shale and soil at the surface generally impeded GPR signal penetration, thin shale layers and shale at bounding surfaces actually enhanced reflectivity and aided in interpretation. Our results indicate that GPR can be successfully used as an aid in outcrop studies to provide quantitative data for use in reservoir modeling.

References

Beaty, D. S., Martinez, A., and Walton, A. W., 1997, Combined minipermeameter and ground-penetrating radar characterization of valley-fill sandstones, Upper Pennsylvanian, northeastern Kansas: Proceedings of the Gulf Coast section of the 1997 SEPM Annual Conference, p. 41-54.

Beres, M., Green, A., Huggenberger, P., and Horstmeyer, H., 1995, Mapping the architecture of glaciofluvial sediments with three-dimensional georadar: Geology, v. 23, no. 12, p. 1,087-1,090.

Bridge, J. S., Alexander, J., Collier, R. E., Gawthorpe, R. L., and Jarvis, J., 1995, Ground-penetrating radar and coring used to study the large-scale structure of point-bar deposits in three dimensions: Sedimentology, v. 42, p. 839-852.

Brown, H. A., 1963, Examination of Pennsylvanian carbonate banks in southwestern Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 63-5, 9 p.

Cunningham, K. J., and Franseen, E. K., 1992, Conglomeratic limestones of the Upper Pennsylvanian Captain Creek Limestone and their association with the lower sequence boundary of the Stanton depositional sequence, Northwestern Johnson County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 92-51, 47 p.

Daniels, D. J., 1996. Surface-penetrating radar; in, IEEE Radar, Sonar, Navigation and Avionics Series 6, E. D. R. Sharman and P. Bradsell, eds.: Exeter, United Kingdom, Short Run Press Ltd., 300 p.

Davis, J. L., and Annan, A. P., 1989, Ground-penetrating radar for high-resolution mapping of soil and rock stratigraphy: Geophysical Prospecting, v. 37, p. 531-551.

Dominic, D. F., Egan, K., Carney, C., Wolfe, P. J., and Boardman, M. R., 1995, Delineation of shallow stratigraphy using ground-penetrating radar: Journal of Applied Geophysics, v. 33, p. 167-175.

Enos, P., Herman, D., Watney, W. L., and Franseen, E., 1989, Stop 4 I-70/I-435 interchange--Bonner Springs Shale and Plattsburg Limestone; in, Sequence Stratigraphic Interpretations and Modeling of Cyclothems in the Upper Pennsylvanian (Missourian), Lansing and Kansas City Groups in Eastern Kansas: Kansas Geological Society Guidebook, 41st Annual Field Trip, October 14-15, 1989, Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 89-44, p. 115-126.

Feldman, H. R., and Franseen, E. K., Stratigraphy and Depositional History of the Drum Limestone and Associated Strata (Pennsylvanian) in the Independence, Kansas, Area--A Field Trip Guidebook and Road Log: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 91-45, 29 p.

Franseen, E. K., Feldman, H. R., Anderson, N. L., and Miller, R. D., 1995, Depositional and stratigraphic analysis of Kansas City group strata utilizing high-resolution seismic imaging, Montgomery County, Kansas; in, Geophysical Atlas of Selected Oil and Gas Fields in Kansas, N. L. Anderson and D. E. Hedke, eds.: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 237, p. 43-46.

Gawthorpe, R. L., Collier, R. E., Alexander, J., Bridge, J. S., and Leeder, M. R., 1993, Ground-penetrating radar--Application to sandbody geometry and heterogeneity studies: Geological Society, Special Publication no. 73, p. 421-432.

Hamblin, W. K., 1969, Marine paleocurrent directions in limestones of the Kansas City Group (Upper Pennsylvanian) in eastern Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 194, pt. 2, 25 p. [available online]

Jol, H. M., Smith, D. G., Meyers, R. A., and Lawton, D. C., 1996, Ground penetrating radar--High resolution stratigraphic analysis of coastal and fluvial environments: Gulf Coast Section of the SEPM Foundation 17th Annual Research Conference on Stratigraphic Analysis, p. 153-163.

Knight, R., Tercier, P., and Jol, H., 1997, The role of ground-penetrating radar and geostatistics in reservoir description: The Leading Edge, v. 16, no. 11, p. 1,576-1,582.

Kruger, J. M., Martinez, A., and Franseen, E. K., 1996, A high-frequency ground-penetrating radar study of the Drum Limestone, Montgomery County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey Open-file Report 96-49, 17 p. [available online]

Liner, C. L., and Liner, J. L., 1995, Ground penetrating radar--A near-face experience from Washington County, Arkansas: The Leading Edge, v. 14, no. 1, p. 17-21.

Martinez, A., Kruger, J. M., Franseen, E. K., Shoemaker, M. L., and Roark, M. L., 1995a, A high-frequency ground-penetrating radar study of the Captain Creek Limestone, Johnson County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 95-57, 23 p.

Martinez, A., Kruger, J. M., and Franseen, E. K., 1995b, A high-frequency ground-penetrating radar study of the Plattsburg Limestone and Bonner Springs Shale, I-435/I-70 Interchange, Southwest Wyandotte County, Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 95-58, 52 p.

Martinez, A., Feldman, H. R., Kruger, J. M., and Beaty, D. S., 1996, Three-dimensional characterization of a fluvial sandstone reservoir analog in northeast Kansas using high-resolution ground-penetrating radar: Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 96-36, 30 p. [available online]

Martinez, A., Beaty, D. S., Stiles, J., and Carr, T. R., 1998a, Comparison of ground-penetrating radar reflectivity and rock properties in a sandstone-dominated incised valley-fill deposit, expanded abstract accepted for GPR 1998 conference, 6 p.

Martinez, A., Franseen, E. K., and Beaty, D. S., 1998b, Applications of ground-penetrating radar to sedimentologic and stratigraphic studies--Examples from Pennsylvanian silciclastics and carbonates in Kansas: Expanded Abstract accepted for GPR 98 conference, 6 p.

Miller, R. A., Anderson, N. L., Feldman, H. R., and Franseen, E. K., 1995, Vertical resolution of a seismic survey in carbonate andsiliciclastic sequences less than 100 m deep in southeastern Kansas: Geophysics, v. 60, p. 423-430.

Newell, K. D., Watney, W. L., Cheng, S. W. L., and Brownrigg, R. L., 1987, Stratigraphic and spatial distribution of oil and gas production in Kansas: Kansas Geological Survey, Subsurface Geology Series 9, 86 p.

Pratt, B. R., and Miall, A. D., 1993, Anatomy of a bioclastic grainstone megashoal (Middle Silurian, southern Ontario) revealed by ground-penetrating radar: Geology, v. 21, no. 3, p. 223-226.

Schon, J. H., 1996, Physical Properties of Rocks: Fundamentals and Principles of Petrophysics: Tarrytown, New York, Elsevier Science Inc., p. 465-478.

Watney, W. L., 1980, Cyclic sedimentation of the Lansing and Kansas City groups (Missourian) in northwestern Kansas and southwestern Nebraska--A guide for petroleum exploration: Kansas Geological Survey, Bulletin 220, 72 p. [available online]

Watney, W. L., French, J. A., and Franseen, E. K., eds., 1989, Sequence stratigraphic interpretations and modeling of cyclothems in the Upper Pennsylvanian (Missourian), Lansing and Kansas City Groups in eastern Kansas: Kansas Geological Society Guidebook, 41st Annual Field Trip, October 14-15, 1989, Kansas Geological Survey, Open-file Report 89-44, 211 p.

Downloads

Published

1998-09-15