#### MCQ’s Questions of Image Processing

__Unit 1__

1. What is the first and foremost step in Image Processing?a) Image restorationb) Image enhancementc) Image acquisitiond) Segmentation

Answer: c

2. In which step of processing, the images are subdivided successively into smaller regions?a) Image enhancementb) Image acquisitionc) Segmentationd) Wavelets

Answer: d

3. What is the next step in image processing after compression?a) Waveletsb) Segmentationc) Representation and descriptiond) Morphological processing

Answer: d

4. What is the step that is performed before color image processing in image processing?a) Wavelets and multi resolution processingb) Image enhancementc) Image restorationd) Image acquisition

Answer: c

5. How many number of steps are involved in image processing?a) 10b) 9c) 11d) 12

Answer: a

6. What is the expanded form of JPEG?a) Joint Photographic Expansion Groupb) Joint Photographic Experts Groupc) Joint Photographs Expansion Groupd) Joint Photographic Expanded Group

Answer: b

7. Which of the following step deals with tools for extracting image components those are useful in the representation and description of shape?a) Segmentationb) Representation & descriptionc) Compressiond) Morphological processing

Answer: d

8. In which step of the processing, assigning a label (e.g., “vehicle”) to an object based on its descriptors is done?a) Object recognitionb) Morphological processingc) Segmentationd) Representation & description

Answer: a

9. What role does the segmentation play in image processing?a) Deals with extracting attributes that result in some quantitative information of interestb) Deals with techniques for reducing the storage required saving an image, or the bandwidth required transmitting itc) Deals with partitioning an image into its constituent parts or objectsd) Deals with property in which images are subdivided successively into smaller regions

Answer: c

10. Among the following image processing techniques which is fast, precise and flexible.a) Opticalb) Digitalc) Electronicd) Photographic

Answer: b

11. An image is considered to be a function of a(x,y), where a represents:a) Height of imageb) Width of imagec) Amplitude of imaged) Resolution of image

Answer: c

12. What is pixel?a) Pixel is the elements of a digital imageb) Pixel is the elements of an analog imagec) Pixel is the cluster of a digital imaged) Pixel is the cluster of an analog image

Answer: a

13. The range of values spanned by the gray scale is called:a) Dynamic rangeb) Band rangec) Peak ranged) Resolution range

Answer: a

14. Which is a colour attribute that describes a pure colour?a) Saturationb) Huec) Brightnessd) Intensity

Answer: b

15. Which gives a measure of the degree to which a pure colour is diluted by white light?a) Saturationb) Huec) Intensityd) Brightness

Answer: a

16. Which means the assigning meaning to a recognized object?a) Interpretationb) Recognitionc) Acquisitiond) Segmentation

Answer: a

17. The transition between continuous values of the image function and its digital equivalent is called ______________a) Quantisationb) Samplingc) Rasterisationd) None of the Mentioned

Answer: a

18. Images quantised with insufficient brightness levels will lead to the occurrence of ____________a) Pixillationb) Blurringc) False Contoursd) None of the Mentioned

Answer: c

19. The smallest discernible change in intensity level is called ____________a) Intensity Resolutionb) Contourc) Saturationd) Contrast

Answer: a

20. What is the tool used in tasks such as zooming, shrinking, rotating, etc.?a) Samplingb) Interpolationc) Filtersd) None of the Mentioned

Answer: b

21. The type of Interpolation where for each new location the intensity of the immediate pixel is assigned is ___________a) bicubic interpolationb) cubic interpolationc) bilinear interpolationd) nearest neighbour interpolation

Answer: d

22. The type of Interpolation where the intensity of the FOUR neighbouring pixels is used to obtain intensity a new location is called ___________a) cubic interpolationb) nearest neighbour interpolationc) bilinear interpolationd) bicubic interpolation

Answer: b

23. Dynamic range of imaging system is a ratio where the upper limit is determined bya) Saturationb) Noisec) Brightnessd) Contrast

Answer: a

24. For Dynamic range ratio the lower limit is determined bya) Saturationb) Brightnessc) Noised) Contrast

Answer: c

25. Histogram equalization or Histogram linearization is represented by of the following equation:a) sk =∑k j =1 nj/n k=0,1,2,……,L-1b) sk =∑k j =0 nj/n k=0,1,2,……,L-1c) sk =∑k j =0 n/nj k=0,1,2,……,L-1d) sk =∑k j =n nj/n k=0,1,2,……,L-1

Answer: b

26. What is the method that is used to generate a processed image that have a specified histogram?a) Histogram linearizationb) Histogram equalizationc) Histogram matchingd) Histogram processing

Answer: c

27. Histograms are the basis for numerous spatial domain processing techniques.a) Trueb) False

Answer: a

28. In a dark image, the components of histogram are concentrated on which side of the grey scale?a) Highb) Mediumc) Lowd) Evenly distributed

Answer: c

29. Which of the following is the primary objective of sharpening of an image?a) Blurring the imageb) Highlight fine details in the imagec) Increase the brightness of the imaged) Decrease the brightness of the image

Answer: b

30. Image sharpening process is used in electronic printing.a) Trueb) False

Answer: a

31. In spatial domain, which of the following operation is done on the pixels in sharpening the image?a) Integrationb) Averagec) Mediand) Differentiation

Answer: d

32. Image differentiation enhances the edges, discontinuities and deemphasizes the pixels with slow varying gray levels.a) Trueb) False

Answer: a

33. In which of the following cases, we wouldn’t worry about the behaviour of sharpening filter?a) Flat segmentsb) Step discontinuitiesc) Ramp discontinuitiesd) Slow varying gray values

Answer: d

34. Which of the following is the valid response when we apply a first derivative?a) Non-zero at flat segmentsb) Zero at the onset of gray level stepc) Zero in flat segmentsd) Zero along ramps

Answer: c

35. Which of the following is not a valid response when we apply a second derivative?a) Zero response at onset of gray level stepb) Nonzero response at onset of gray level stepc) Zero response at flat segmentsd) Nonzero response along the ramps

Answer: b

36. If f(x,y) is an image function of two variables, then the first order derivative of a one dimensional function, f(x) is:a) f(x+1)-f(x)b) f(x)-f(x+1)c) f(x-1)-f(x+1)d) f(x)+f(x-1)

Answer: a

37. Isolated point is also called as noise point.a) Trueb) False

Answer: a

38. What is the thickness of the edges produced by first order derivatives when compared to that of second order derivatives?a) Finerb) Equalc) Thickerd) Independent

Answer: c

39. First order derivative can enhance the fine detail in the image compared to that of second order derivative.a) Trueb) False

Answer: b

40. Which of the following derivatives produce a double response at step changes in gray level?a) First order derivativeb) Third order derivativec) Second order derivatived) First and second order derivatives

Answer: c

41. Which gray-level transformation increase the dynamic range of gray-level in the image?a) Power-law transformationsb) Negative transformationsc) Contrast stretchingd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

42. When is the contrast stretching transformation a linear function, for r and s as gray-value of image before and after processing respectively?a) r1 = s1 and r2 = s2b) r1 = r2, s1 = 0 and s2 = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowedc) r1 = 1 and r2 = 0d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

43. When is the contrast stretching transformation a thresholding function, for r and s as gray-value of image before and after processing respectively?a) r1 = s1 and r2 = s2b) r1 = r2, s1 = 0 and s2 = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowedc) r1 = 1 and r2 = 0d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

44. What condition prevents the intensity artifacts to be created while processing with contrast stretching, if r and s are gray-values of image before and after processing respectively?a) r1 = s1 and r2 = s2b) r1 = r2, s1 = 0 and s2 = L – 1, L is the max gray value allowedc) r1 = 1 and r2 = 0d) r1 ≤ r2 and s1 ≤ s2

Answer: d

45. A contrast stretching result been obtained by setting (r1, s1) = (rmin, 0) and (r2, s2) = (rmax, L – 1), where, r and s are gray-values of image before and after processing respectively, L is the max gray value allowed and rmax and rmin are maximum and minimum gray-values in image respectively. What should we term the transformation function if r1 = r2 = m, some mean gray-value.a) Linear functionb) Thresholding functionc) Intermediate functiond) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

46. A specific range of gray-levels highlighting is the basic idea of __________a) Contrast stretchingb) Bit –plane slicingc) Thresholdingd) Gray-level slicing

Answer: d

47. What is/are the approach(s) of the gray-level slicing?a) To give all gray level of a specific range high value and a low value to all other gray levelsb) To brighten the pixels gray-value of interest and preserve the backgroundc) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

48. Specific bit contribution in the image highlighting is the basic idea of __________a) Contrast stretchingb) Bit –plane slicingc) Thresholdingd) Gray-level slicing

Answer: b

49. Which of the following helps to obtain the number of bits to be used to quantize each pixel.a) Gray-level slicingb) Contrast stretchingc) Contouringd) Bit-plane slicing

Answer: d

50. Which of the following in an image can be removed by using smoothing filter?a) Smooth transitions of gray levelsb) Smooth transitions of brightness levelsc) Sharp transitions of gray levelsd) Sharp transitions of brightness levels

Answer: c

__Unit 2__

1. If the Gaussian filter is expressed as H(u, v) = e(-D2 (u,v)/2D 02),where D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v), D0 is the distance defining cutoff frequency, then for what value of D(u, v) the filter is down to 0.607 of its maximum value?a) D(u, v) = D0b) D(u, v) = D02c) D(u, v) = D03d) D(u, v) = 0

Answer: a

2. State the statement as true or false. “The GLPF did produce as much smoothing as the BLPF of order 2 for the same value of cutoff frequency”.a) Trueb) False

Answer: b

3. In general, which of the following assures of no ringing in the output?a) Gaussian Lowpass Filterb) Ideal Lowpass Filterc) Butterworth Lowpass Filterd) All of the mentioned

Answer: a

4. The lowpass filtering process can be applied in which of the following area(s)?a) The field of machine perception, with application of character recognitionb) In field of printing and publishing industryc) In field of processing satellite and aerial imagesd) All of the mentioned

Answer: d

5. The edges and other abrupt changes in gray-level of an image are associated with_________a) High frequency componentsb) Low frequency componentsc) Edges with high frequency and other abrupt changes in gray-level with low frequency componentsd) Edges with low frequency and other abrupt changes in gray-level with high frequency components

Answer: a

6. A type of Image is called as VHRR image. What is the definition of VHRR image?a) Very High Range Resolution imageb) Very High Resolution Range imagec) Very High Resolution Radiometer imaged) Very High Range Radiometer Image

Answer: c

7. The Image sharpening in frequency domain can be achieved by which of the following method(s)?a) Attenuating the high frequency componentsb) Attenuating the low-frequency componentsc) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

8. The function of filters in Image sharpening in frequency domain is to perform reverse operation of which of the following Lowpass filter?a) Gaussian Lowpass filterb) Butterworth Lowpass filterc) Ideal Lowpass filterd) None of the Mentioned

Answer: c

9. If D0 is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v). Then what value does an Ideal Highpass filter will give if D(u, v) ≤ D0 andifD(u, v) >D0?a) 0 and 1 respectivelyb) 1 and 0 respectivelyc) 1 in both cased) 0 in both case

Answer: a

10. What is the relation of the frequencies to a circle of radius D0, where D0 is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle, for an Ideal Highpass filter?a) IHPF sets all frequencies inside circle to zerob) IHPF allows all frequencies, without attenuating, outside the circlec) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

11. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Butterworth Highpass Filter, of order n, D0 is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v)?a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2nb) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}c) H(u,v)=1-e^-D^2(u,v)/2D0^2d) none of the mentioned

Answer: a

12. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Ideal Highpass Filter? Given D0 is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v).a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2nb) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}c) H(u,v)=1-e^-D^2(u,v)/2D0^2d) none of the mentioned

Answer: b

13. Which of the following is the transfer function of the Gaussian Highpass Filter? Given D0 is the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle and D(u, v) is the distance from point(u, v).a) H(u,v)=1/1+[(D0/D(u,v)]^2nb) H(u,v)={0 if D(u,v) <= D0 and 1 if D(u,v)> D0}c) H(u,v)=1-e^-D^2(u,v)/2D0^2d) none of the mentioned

Answer: c

14. For a given image having smaller objects, which of the following filter(s), having D0 as the cutoff distance measured from origin of frequency rectangle, would you prefer for a comparably smoother result?a) IHLF with D0 15b) BHPF with D0 15 and order 2c) GHPF with D0 15 and order 2d) All of the mentioned

Answer: c

15. Which of the following statement(s) is true for the given fact that “Applying Highpass filters has an effect on the background of the output image”?a) The average background intensity increases to near whiteb) The average background intensity reduces to near blackc) The average background intensity changes to a value average of black and whited) All of the mentionedAnswer: b

16. Color model is also named as (another name):a) Color spaceb) Color gapc) Color space & color systemd) Color system

Answer: c

17. What do you mean by the term pixel depth?a) It is the number of bits used to represent each pixel in RGB spaceb) It is the number of bytes used to represent each pixel in RGB spacec) It is the number of units used to represent each pixel in RGB spaced) It is the number of mm used to represent each pixel in RGB space

Answer: a

18. How many bit RGB color image is represented by full-color image?a) 32-bit RGB color imageb) 24-bit RGB color imagec) 16-bit RGB color imaged) 8-bit RGB color image

Answer: b

19. What is the equation used to obtain I(Intensity) component of each RGB pixel in RGB color format?a) I=1/2(R+G+B)b) I=1/3(R+G+B)c) I=1/3(R-G-B)d) I=1/3(R-G+B)

Answer: b

20. What is the equation used for obtaining R value in terms of HSI components?a) R=I[1-(S cosH)/cos(60°-H) ].b) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(120°-H)].c) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(60°-H) ].d) R=I[1+(S cosH)/cos(30°-H) ].

Answer: c

21. What is the equation used for calculating B value in terms of HSI components?a) B=I(1+S)b) B=S(1-I)c) B=S(1+I)d) B=I(1-S)

Answer: d

22. What is the equation used for calculating G value in terms of HSI components?a) G=3I-(R+B)b) G=3I+(R+B)c) G=3I-(R-B)d) G=2I-(R+B)

Answer: a

23. Which of the following color models are used for color printing?a) RGBb) CMYc) CMYKd) CMY and CMYK

Answer: d

24. Which of the following fact(s) is/are true for the relationship between low frequency component of Fourier transform and the rate of change of gray levels?a) Moving away from the origin of transform the low frequency corresponds to smooth gray level variationb) Moving away from the origin of transform the low frequencies corresponds to abrupt change in gray levelc) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

25. Which of the following fact(s) is/are true for the relationship between high frequency component of Fourier transform and the rate of change of gray levels?a) Moving away from the origin of transform the high frequency corresponds to smooth gray level variationb) Moving away from the origin of transform the higher frequencies corresponds to abrupt change in gray levelc) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

26. What is the name of the filter that multiplies two functions F(u, v) and H(u, v), where F has complex components too since is Fourier transformed function of f(x, y), in an order that each component of H multiplies both real and complex part of corresponding component in F?a) Unsharp mask filterb) High-boost filterc) Zero-phase-shift-filterd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

27. To set the average value of an image zero, which of the following term would be set 0 in the frequency domain and the inverse transformation is done, where F(u, v) is Fourier transformed function of f(x, y)?a) F(0, 0)b) F(0, 1)c) F(1, 0)d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

28. What is the name of the filter that is used to turn the average value of a processed image zero?a) Unsharp mask filterb) Notch filterc) Zero-phase-shift-filterd) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

29. Which of the following filter(s) attenuates high frequency while passing low frequencies of an image?a) Unsharp mask filterb) Lowpass filterc) Zero-phase-shift filterd) All of the mentioned

Answer: b

30. Which of the following filter(s) attenuates low frequency while passing high frequencies of an image?a) Unsharp mask filterb) Highpass filterc) Zero-phase-shift filterd) All of the mentioned

Answer: b

31. Which of the following filter have a less sharp detail than the original image because of attenuation of high frequencies?a) Highpass filterb) Lowpass filterc) Zero-phase-shift filterd) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

32. The feature(s) of a highpass filtered image is/are ___________a) Have less gray-level variation in smooth areasb) Emphasized transitional gray-level detailsc) An overall sharper imaged) All of the mentioned

Answer: d

33. A spatial domain filter of the corresponding filter in frequency domain can be obtained by applying which of the following operation(s) on filter in frequency domain?a) Fourier transformb) Inverse Fourier transformc) None of the mentionedd) All of the mentioned

Answer: b

34. A frequency domain filter of the corresponding filter in spatial domain can be obtained by applying which of the following operation(s) on filter in spatial domain?a) Fourier transformb) Inverse Fourier transformc) None of the mentionedd) All of the mentioned

Answer: a

35. Which of the following filtering is done in frequency domain in correspondence to lowpass filtering in spatial domain?a) Gaussian filteringb) Unsharp mask filteringc) High-boost filteringd) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

36. Using the feature of reciprocal relationship of filter in spatial domain and corresponding filter in frequency domain, which of the following fact is true?a) The narrower the frequency domain filter results in increased blurringb) The wider the frequency domain filter results in increased blurringc) The narrower the frequency domain filter results in decreased blurringd) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

37. A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has neighbors whose coordinates are given by:(x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y-1)This set of pixels is called ____________a) 4-neighbors of pb) Diagonal neighborsc) 8-neighborsd) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

38. A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has neighbors whose coordinates are given by:(x+1, y+1), (x+1, y-1), (x-1, y+1), (x-1, y-1)This set of pixels is called ____________a) 4-neighbors of pb) Diagonal neighborsc) 8-neighborsd) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

39. What is the set of pixels of 8-neighbors of pixel p at coordinates (x, y)?a) (x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y-1), (x+2, y), (x-2, y), (x, y+2), (x, y-2)b) (x+1, y), (x-1, y), (x, y+1), (x, y-1), (x+1, y+1), (x+1, y-1), (x-1, y+1), (x-1, y-1)c) (x+1, y+1), (x+1, y-1), (x-1, y+1), (x-1, y-1), (x+2, y+2), (x+2, y-2), (x-2, y+2), (x-2, y-2)d) (x+2, y), (x-2, y), (x, y+2), (x, y-2), (x+2, y+2), (x+2, y-2), (x-2, y+2), (x-2, y-2)Answer: b

40. Two pixels p and q having gray values from V, the set of gray-level values used to define adjacency, are m-adjacent if:a) q is in N4(p)b) q is in ND(p) and the set N4(p) ∩ N4(q) has no pixels whose values are from Vc) Any of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

41. Let S, a subset of pixels in an image, is said to be a connected set if:a) If for any pixel p in S, the set of pixels that are connected to it in Sis only oneb) If it only has one connected componentc) If S is a regiond) All of the mentioned

Answer: d

42. Let R be a subset of pixels in an image. How can we define the contour of R?a) If R is a region, and the set of pixels in R have one or more neighbors that are not in Rb) If R is an entire image, then the set of pixels in the first and last rows and columns of Rc) All of the mentionedd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

43. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), and z(v, w), D is a distance function or metric if:a) D(p, q) ≥ 0b) D(p, q) = D(q, p)c) D(p, z) ≤ D(p, q) + D(q, z)d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d

44. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), the Euclidean distance between p and q is defined as:a) D(p, q) = [(x – s)2 + (y – t)2]1/2b) D(p, q) = |x – s| + |y – t|c) D(p, q) = max (|x – s| + |y – t|)d) None of the mentioned

Answer: a

45. For pixels p(x, y), q(s, t), the city-block distance between p and q is defined as:a) D(p, q) = [(x – s)2 + (y – t)2]1/2b) D(p, q) = |x – s| + |y – t|c) D(p, q) = max (|x – s| + |y – t|)d) None of the mentioned

Answer: b

46. The domain that refers to image plane itself and the domain that refers to Fourier transform of an image is/are :a) Spatial domain in bothb) Frequency domain in bothc) Spatial domain and Frequency domain respectivelyd) Frequency domain and Spatial domain respectively

Answer: c

47. What is the technique for a gray-level transformation function called, if the transformation would be to produce an image of higher contrast than the original by darkening the levels below some gray-level m and brightening the levels above m in the original image.a) Contouringb) Contrast stretchingc) Mask processingd) Point processing

Answer: b

48. For Image Enhancement a general-approach is to use a function of values of f (input image) in a predefined neighborhood of (x, y) to determine the value of g (output image) at (x, y). The techniques that uses such approaches are called ________a) Contouringb) Contrast stretchingc) Mask processingd) None of the mentioned

Answer: c

49. The Laplacian in frequency domain is simply implemented by using filter __________a) H(u, v)= -(u2– v2)b) H(u, v)= -(1)c) H(u, v)= -(u2+ v2)d) none of the mentioned

Answer: c

50. Assuming that the origin of F(u, v), Fourier transformed function of f(x, y) an input image, has been correlated by performing the operation f(x, y)(-1)x+y prior to taking the transform of the image. If F and f are of same size, then what does the given operation is/are supposed to do?a) Resize the transformb) Rotate the transformc) Shifts the center transformd) All of the mentioned

Answer: c

__Unit 3__

1.Gaussian noise is referred to as

a.red noise

b.black noise

c.white noise

d.normal noise

Answer: (d).

2.Convolution in spatial domain is multiplication in

a.frequency domain

b.time domain

c.spatial domain

d.plane

Answer: (a).

3.Linear functions possesses the property of

a.additivity

b.homogeneity

c.multiplication

d.Both a and b

Answer: (d).

4.PDF in image processing is called

a.probability degraded function

b.probability density function

c.probabilistic degraded function

d.probabilistic density function

Answer: (b).

5.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the medians of intensity levels is

a.arithmetic mean filter

b.geometric mean filter

c.median filter

d.sequence mean filter

Answer: (c).

6.In geometric mean filters when alpha is equal to 1 then it works as

a.notch filter

b.bandpass filter

c.wiener filter

d.inverse filter

Answer: (d).

7.In wiener filtering it is assumed that noise and image are

a.different

b.homogenous

c.correlated

d.uncorrelated

Answer: (d).

8.EBCT scanners stands for

a.electrical beam computed tomography

b.electric beam computed tomography

c.electronic beam computed tomography

d.electron beam computed tomography

Answer: (d).

9. PSF stands for

a.probability spread function

b.point spread function

c.probability spike function

d.point spike function

Answer: (b).

10. Filter that performs opposite to band rejected filter is called

a.lowpass filter

b.bandpass filter

c.highpass filter

d.max filter

Answer: (b).

11.Degradation can be estimated by

a.2ways

b.3ways

c.4ways

d.5ways

Answer: (b).

12. The purpose of restoration is to gain

a. degraded image

b. original image

c. pixels

d. coordinates

Answer: (b).

13. Power spectra and noise of undegraded image must be known is a statement of

a. notch filter

b. bandpass filter

c. wiener filter

d.max filter

Answer: (c).

14. Contraharmonic mean filter produces

a.degraded image

b.original image

c.restored image

d.plane

Answer: (c).

15.One that is not the type of a mean filter

a.arithmetic mean filter

b.geometric mean filter

c.harmonic mean filter

d.sequence mean filter

Answer: (d).

16.Restoration can not be done using

a.single projection

b.double projection

c.triple projection

d.octa projection

Answer: (a).

17.Mean filters reduce noise using

a.sharpening

b.blurring

c.restoration

d.acquisition

Answer: (b).

18.In geometric mean filters when alpha is equal to 0 then it works as

a.notch filter

b.bandpass filter

c.parametric wiener filter

d.inverse filter

Answer: (c).

19.To improve the speed of convergence algorithm used is

a.newton

b.Raphson

c.wiener

d.newton-Raphson

Answer: (d).

20.Degraded image is produced using degradation process and

a.additive noise

b.destruction

c.pixels

d.coordinates

Answer: (a).

21.The inverse of image convolution is

a.image nonconvolution

b.image inconvolution

c.image deconvolution

d.image byconvolution

Answer: (c).

22.Impulse is simulated by

a.black dot

b.gray dot

c.bright dot

d.sharp dot

Answer: (c).

23.The approach to restoration is

a.inverse filtering

b.spike filtering

c.black filtering

d.ranking

Answer: (a).

24.Square of standard deviation is called

a.variance

b.noise

c.restoration

d.power

Answer: (a).

25.CT stands for

a.computerized tomography

b.computed tomography

c.computerized terminology

d.computed terminology

Answer: (b).

26.SNR in noise stands for

a.signal to noise ratio

b.serial to noise ratio

c.signal to notch ratio

d.serial to notch ratio

Answer: (a).

27.Approach that incorporates both degradation function and statistical noise in restoration is called

a.inverse filtering

b.spike filtering

c.wiener filtering

d.ranking

Answer: (c).

28.Bandreject filters are used where the noise components are usually

a.rejected

b.unknown

c.known

d.taken

Answer: (c).

29.Spatial filtering is used in the presence of

a.additive random noise

b.gamma noise

c.black noise

d.exponential noise

Answer: (a).

30.Order statistics filters are filters whose responses are based on

a.additive noise

b.probability density function

c.pixels

d.ranking

Answer: (d).

31.Images usually gets corrupted during

a.transmission

b.degradation

c.restoration

d.acquisition

Answer: (a).

32.Minimum mean square error filter is also called

a.square error filter

b.most square error filter

c.least square error filter

d.error filter

Answer: (c).

33.High frequency components are passed by

a.lowpass filter

b.bandpass filter

c.highpass filter

d.max filter

Answer: (c).

34.One that is not a type of a noise is

a.Rayleigh noise

b.gamma noise

c.black noise

d.exponential noise

Answer: (c).

35.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the minimum values of intensity levels is

a.max filter

b.geometric mean filter

c.median filter

d.min filter

Answer: (d).

36.FFT stands for

a.fast Fourier transform

b.frequency Fourier transform

c.frequency fast transform

d.fast frequency transform

Answer: (a).

37.Automatically determined filters provides inferior results as compared to

a.manually determined filters

b.bandpass filters

c.wiener filters

d.error filters

Answer: (a).

38.Frequencies in predefined neighborhood are rejected by

a.notch filter

b.bandpass filter

c.highpass filter

d.max filter

Answer: (a).

39.Degraded image is given in a

a.frequency domain

b.time domain

c.spatial domain

d.plane

Answer: (c).

40.Filter that computes midpoint between min and max value is called

a.max filter

b.midpoint filter

c.median filter

d.min filter

Answer: (b).

41.Low frequency components are passed by

a.lowpass filter

b.bandpass filter

c.highpass filter

d.max filter

Answer: (a).

42.Principle sources of noise arise during image

a.destruction

b.degradation

c.restoration

d.acquisition

Answer: (d).

43.Periodic noises arise from

a.electrical interference

b.gamma interference

c.beta interference

d.mechanical interference

Answer: (a).

44.Function having both properties of additivity and homogeneity is called

a.sharpening

b.spike noise

c.restoration

d.superposition

Answer: (d).

45.Fourier spectrum of noises are constant and usually called

a.red noise

b.black noise

c.white noise

d.green noise

Answer: (c).

46.Salt and pepper noise also referred to the term

a.Rayleigh noise

b.spike noise

c.black noise

d.exponential noise

Answer: (b).

47.Constrained least squares filter does not implies best in

a.Rayleigh noise

b.degradation

c.restoration

d.optimum restoration

Answer: (d).

48.Salt and pepper noise can interchangeably be used with

a.Rayleigh noise

b.gamma noise

c.black noise

d.impulse

Answer: (d).

49.Gaussian shape function has no

a.ones

b.zeros

c.pixels

d.coordinates

Answer: (b).

50.Filter that replaces the pixel value with the maximum values of intensity levels is

a.max filter

b.geometric mean filter

c.median filter

d.min filter

Answer: (a).

__Unit 4__

Answer : a

2. What is the process of breaking an image into groups?a) Edge detectionb) Smoothingc) Segmentationd) None of the mentioned

Answer : c

3. How many types of 3-D image processing techniques are there in image perception?a) 3b) 4c) 5d) 6

Answer :c

4. Points exceeding the threshold in output image are marked as

Answer :b

5. Example of discontinuity approach in image segmentation is:

Answer :d

6. Image segmentation is based on?

Answer :a

7. Images whose principle features are edges is called:

Answer :c

8. If R is the entire region of the image then union of all segmented parts should be equal to

Answer :a

9. Laplacian Images need:

Answer :c

10. For point detection we use:

Answer :b

11. Textured inner region of the object produces

Answer :a

12. If the standard deviation of the pixels is positive, then sub image is labeled as

Answer :c

13. Thresholding gives the

Answer :d

14. Segmentation is a process of:

Answer :c

15. Segmentation algorithms depends on intensity values

Answer :d

16. Sudden changes in intensity produces peak in

Answer :a

17. Edge detector method is used to detect

Answer :d

18. Accuracy of image segmentation can be improved by the type of

Answer :d

19. During segmentation every pixel of an image should be in

Answer :c

20. For line detection we use

Answer :b

21. When the desired object is detected segmentation should be

Answer :d

22. Similarity approach of segmentation depends upon

Answer :b

23. For edge detection we combine gradient with

Answer :d

24. Lines are referred as

Answer :c

25. Edges arise between thin objects and backgrounds are

Answer :c

26. For edge detection we observes

Answer :d

27. Thresholding is the example of

Answer :b

28. Algorithm stating that boundaries of the image are different from background is

Answer :a

29. Edge detection has fundamental

Answer : b

30. Canny edge detection algorithm is based on

Answer : b

31. Segmentation is usually not perfect due to number of factors such as

a) Noise, Bad illumination

b) Object Contain several region

c) Due to boundary-filling

d) Due to closed contour

Answer : a

32. What are the two approaches to segmentation?

Answer : b

33. Which technique applies Edge segmentation

Answer : c

34. Criteria for region segmentation

Answer : a

35. Pixels are allocated to categories according to the range of values in which a pixel lies is called

Answer : a

36. Edge element is associated with two components

Answer : a

37. Threshold based segmentation is based on

Answer : b

38. Which segmentation technique is based on clustering approaches?

Answer : a

39. A gradient operator for edge detection is

Answer : a

40. Image segmentation is the process of

Answer : a

41. Classical edge detectors uses

Answer : a

42. Sobel edge detection uses

Answer : a

43. Advantages of canny operator

Answer : c

44. Gray level image segmentation is generally based on two properties

Answer : a

45. Edge based segmentation algorithm is using

Answer : d

46. The thresholding operation is a grey value re-mapping operation g defined by

Answer : a

47. Grey level thresholding is a generalization of

Answer : b

48. Region growing is a ……………image segmentation approach

Answer : a

49. Example of Edge Detection Methods is

Answer : c

50. Example of Region Growing Methods is

Answer : d

__Unit 5__

Answer : a

2. What does the total number of pixels in the region defines?a) Perimeterb) Areac) Intensityd) Brightness

Answer : b

3. What is the unit of compactness of a region?a) Meterb) Meter2c) No unitsd) Meter-1

Answer : c

4. For which of the following regions, compactness is minimal?a) Rectangleb) Squarec) Irregulard) Disk

Answer : d

5. Compactness is insensitive to orientation.a) Trueb) False

Answer : a

6. Which of the following measures are not used to describe a region?a) Mean and median of grey valuesb) Minimum and maximum of grey valuesc) Number of pixels aloned) Number of pixels above and below mean

Answer : c

7. We cannot use normalized area as one of the region descriptor.a) Trueb) False

Answer : b

8. What is the study of properties of a figure that are unaffected by any deformation?a) Topologyb) Geographyc) Statisticsd) Deformation

Answer : a

9. On which of the following operation of an image, the topology of the region changes?a) Stretchingb) Rotationc) Foldingd) Change in distance measure

Answer : c

10. Topological properties don’t depend on the distance measures.a) Trueb) False

Answer : a

11. What is the Euler number of the image shown below?a) 0b) 1c) 2d) -1

Answer : d

12. What is the Euler number of a region with polygonal network containing V,Q and F as the number of vertices, edges and faces respectively?a) V+Q+Fb) V-Q+Fc) V+Q-Fd) V-Q-F

Answer : b

13. The texture of the region provides measure of which of the following properties?a) Smoothness aloneb) Coarseness alonec) Regularity aloned) Smoothness, coarseness and regularity

Answer : d

14. What is the Euler number of the region shown in the figure below?a) 1b) -2c) -1d) 2

Answer : b

15. Which of the following techniques is based on the Fourier transform?a) Structuralb) Spectralc) Statisticald) Topological

Answer : b

16. Structural techniques deal with the arrangement of image primitives.a) Trueb) False

Answer : a

17. The length of a boundary is one of the boundary descriptors.a) Trueb) False

Answer : a

18. Which of the following of a boundary is defined as the line perpendicular to the major axis?a) Equilateral axisb) Equidistant axisc) Minor axisd) Median axis

Answer : c

19. Which of the following is the useful descriptor of a boundary, whose value is given by the ratio of length of the major axis to the minor axis?a) Radiusb) Perimeterc) Aread) Eccentricity

Answer : d

20. If the boundary is traversed in the clockwise direction, a vertex point ‘p’ is said to be a part of the convex segment if the rate of change of slope at ‘p’ is:a) Negativeb) Zeroc) Non negatived) Cannot be determined

Answer : c

21. The order of shape number for a closed boundary is:a) Oddb) Evenc) 1d) Any positive value

Answer : b

22. What is the order of the shape number of a rectangular boundary with the dimensions of 3×3?a) 3b) 6c) 9d) 12

Answer : d

23. Statistical moments are used to describe the shape of boundary segments quantitatively.a) Trueb) False

Answer : a

24. Which of the following techniques of boundary descriptions have the physical interpretation of boundary shape?a) Fourier transformb) Statistical momentsc) Laplace transformd) Curvature

Answer : b

25. Statistical moments is sensitive to rotation.a) Trueb) False

Answer : b

26. The code length of Huffman Coding does not depend on the frequency of occurrence of characters.a) trueb) false

Answer : b

27. In Huffman coding, data in a tree always occur?a) rootsb) leavesc) left sub treesd) right sub trees

Answer : b

28. From the following given tree, what is the code word for the character ‘a’?a) 011b) 010c) 100d) 101

Answer : a

29. What will be the cost of the code in Huffman coding if character ci is at depth di and occurs at frequency fi?a) cifib) ∫cific) ∑fidid) fidi

Answer : c

30. An optimal code will always be present in a full tree.a) trueb) false

Answer : a

31. Which of the following is true about Huffman Coding?(A) Huffman coding may become lossy in some cases(B) Huffman Codes may not be optimal lossless codes in some cases(C) In Huffman coding, no code is prefix of any other code.(D) All of the above

Answer : c

32. The characters a to h have the set of frequencies based on the first 8 Fibonacci numbers as follows:

a : 1, b : 1, c : 2, d : 3, e : 5, f : 8, g : 13, h : 21

A Huffman code is used to represent the characters. What is the sequence of characters corresponding to the following code?

110111100111010

Answer : a

33. When is Run Length Encoding used?

Answer : d

34. Dilation followed by erosion is called

Answer : b

35. Opening smooths the image’s

Answer : c

36. Structuring elements have origins at

Answer : c

37. With dilation process images get

Answer : c

38. Opening and closing are each others

Answer : b

39. Fully containment of the SE in an image is required in

Answer : a

40. Erosion followed by dilation is called

Answer : a

41. Hit-or-miss transformation is used for shape

Answer : b

42. Subimages used to probe the image is called

Answer : c

43. Closing produces

Answer : a

44. Dilation is used for

Answer : a

45. The translation of set B is the

Answer : a

46. (AoB)oB is equal to

Answer : c