The Environment factors influencing abundance and growth of wild yam in broadleaved forest, Tsirang District, Bhutan
Keywords:Abundance, Altitude, Dominance, Environment parameters, Vegetation
Yams (Dioscorea) consist of approximately 600 species in the world. Yams are considered a staple food in Asia, tropical and subtropical regions. Genetic erosion and unsustainable harvesting practices are among the main problems associated with wild yam plants. This study was conducted with the objectives to enumerate wild yam species composition and environmental parameters affecting its growth and abundance. Systematic sampling of the study site was carried out based on different land aspects. Line transects were laid out in selected land aspects within the elevation range of 825 – 1935 m. Five plots in each transect with a 100 m plot interval comprising seven transects were laid out in the study area. Each plot was divided into sub-plot of 20 x 20 m, 5 x 5 m, and 1 x 1 m to enumerate trees, shrubs, and herbs respectively. Seven species of yams were found from the broadleaved forest and spearman correlation showed negative association of yam abundance with tree counts and canopy closure. The areas with higher density of trees had low count of yam abundance. Yam grows well in open canopy in lower altitudes comparing to high altitudes. Yam abundance was positively related with shrubs, herbs, soil moisture, soil organic matter, soil organic carbon, and nitrogen content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference of yam abundance in 7 different transects due to different ecological parameters influencing the abundance in different transects though transect being in a broadleaved forest.
Aboagye, M., Nyadanu, D. & Opoku, O. (2015) Survey of diversity and production of yams in four communities in Southern Ghana. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 10(24): 2453-2459. DOI: 10.5897/AJAR2014.9468.
Bremner, J. (1960) Determination of Nitrogen in soil by the Kjeldahl method. The Journal of Agriculture Science.55(1): 11-33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600021572.
Byarugaba, D., Ndemere, P. & Midgley, J. (2006) The vulnerability and resilience of Dioscorea species in utilized and nonutilized zones of Bwindi Impenetrable National Park. Journal of Ecology. 45(1): 258–264. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2006.00700.x.
Degefa, I. & Anbessa, B. (2017) Traditional Agronomic Practices of Yam (Dioscorea Species) in Abaya Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. International Journal of Chemical and Natural Science. 5(1): 499-503.
Diby, N., Hgaza, K. & Tie, B. (2009) Productivity of yams (Dioscorea spp.) as affected by soil fertility. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 5(2): 494-506.
Diby, N., Hgaza, K. & Tie, B. (2011) 'How does soil fertility affect yam growth?. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Plant Soil Science. 61(5): 448-457. DOI: 10.1080/09064710.2010.505578.
Ehirim, C. & Obike, K. (2017) The Effect of Soil Types on the Growth Rate of Yam Seedlings Inferred from 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 11(3): 81-86.
Frossard, E., Aighewi, B. & Ake. (2017) The Challenge of Improving Soil Fertility in Yam Cropping Systems of West Africa. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8(1953): 1-8. DOI: org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01953.
Garedew, B., Haile, B. & Ayiza, A. (2017) Distribution, Diversity and Potential Production of Yams (Dioscoreaspecies) in Sheko District, Southwest Ethiopia. American Journal of Life Sciences.5(3): 86-92.
Gong, J., Chen, L. & Fu, B. (2009) Integrated effects of slope aspect and land use on soil nutrients in a small catchment in a hilly loess area, China. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology. 14(3): 307–316.
Jankowski, S. & Freiser, H. (1961) Flame Photometric Methods of Determining the Potassium Tetraphenylborate. Analytical Chemmistry. 33(6): 773-775. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60174a034.
Konare, H., Yost, R. & Doumbia, M. (2010). Loss on ignition: Measuring soil organic carbon in soils of the Sahel, West Africa. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 5(22): 3088-3095.
Kumar, S., Das, G. & Shin, H. (2017) Dioscorea spp. (A Wild Edible Tuber): A Study on Its Ethnopharmacological Potential and Traditional Use by the Local People of Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 8(52): 1-17. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00052.
Maikhuri, R., Semwal, R. & Rao, K. (2000) Growth and ecological impacts of traditional agroforestry tree species in Central Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems. 48(3): 257-271. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006344812127.
Ministry of Agriculture and Forests. (2017) Atlas of Bhutan. Retrieved from http://www.dofps.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Atlas_LULC2016.pdf on 4 January 2020.
Muthamia, Z., Morag, F. & Nyende, A. (2016) Estimation of genetic diversity of the Kenyan yam (Dioscorea spp.) using microsatellite markers. African Journal of Biotechnology. 12(40): 5845-5851. DOI: 10.5897/AJB2013.12362 .
Ngwe, M., Omokolo, D. & Joly, S. (2015) Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.): Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices. 10(12): 1-13. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0145364.
Noltie, H. (1994) Flora of Bhutan. Edinburgh: Royal Botanical Garden Edinburgh.
Nyadanu, D. & Agyeman, M. (2015) Survey of diversity and production of yams in four communities in Southern Ghana. African journal of agricultural research. 10(24): 2453-2459. DOI: 0.5897/AJAR2014.9468.
Padhan, B., Mukherjee, A. & Mohanty, S. (2019) Genetic variability and inter species relationship between wild and cultivated yams (Dioscorea spp.) from Koraput, India based on molecular and morphological markers. Physiological Molicular Biological Plants. DOI.org/10.1007/s12298-019-00691-3.
Paul, G. & Yavitt, J. (2010) Tropical Vine Growth and the Effects on Forest Succession: A Review of the Ecology and Management of Tropical Climbing Plants. Tropical Vine Ecology and Forest Succession. 77 (2010): 11–30. DOI: 10.1007/s12229-010-9059-3.
Robert, A. & Cornet, D. (2010) Review of soil fertility management for yam-based systems in West Africa. African Journal of Root and Tuber Crops. 8(2): 1-17.
Schiwachi, H., Kikuno, H. & Ohata, J. (2015) Growth of Water Yam (Dioscorea alata L.) under alkaline soil conditions. Tropical agriculture development. 59(2): 76-82.
Singh, G. & Kumar, J. (2015) Diversity of wild edible yams and its traditional knowledge among munda tribe of district Khunti, Jharkhand, India. International Journal of Bioassays.4(10): 4440-4442.
Siqueira, M., Nascimento, W. & Silva, L. (2014) Distribution, management and diversity of yam local varieties in Brazil: a study on Dioscoreaalata L. BrazilJournal of Biology. 74(1): 52-61. DOI: org/10.1590/1519-6984.17112.
Tamiru, M., Becker, H. & Maass, B. (2008). Diversity, distribution and management of yam landraces (Dioscorea spp.) in Southern Ethiopia. Genetic Resource Crop Evolution. 55(1): 115–131.
Ugyen, J. & Gurung, T. (2015) Assessment of Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Diversity at Community Level in Nangkor Gewog under Zhemgang Dzongkhag. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/976d/a1f2afd40c0174d568f509d142e41d63531e.pdf on 7 September 2019.
Watham, L., Athokpam, H. & Meitei, W. (2014). Evaluation of some soil test methods for available phosphorus and its critical limits for black gram in acid soils of Imphal west district, Manipur (India). The Ecoscan. 8(3): 199-202.
Wu, J., Ding, Z. & Jiao, Z. (2016) Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Dioscorea japonica Germplasm in China Using Inter-simple Sequence Repeat Markers. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology. 3(11): 36-42. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20546/ijcrbp.2016.311.006.
Wu, W., Chen, C. & Zhanga, Q. (2019). A comparative assessment of diversity of greater yam (Dioscorea alata) in China. Scientia Horticulturae. 243(2019): 116– 124.DOI: org/10.1016/j.scienta.2018.08.016.
Yasuoka, H. (2013) Dense Wild Yam Patches Established by Hunter-Gatherer Camps: Beyond the Wild Yam Question, Toward the Historical Ecology of Rainforests. Human Ecology. 41(3): 465–475. DOI: 10.1007/s10745-013-9574-z.
Zurich, E. & Adeoluwa, O. (2017) Yam (Dioscorea spp.). Encyclopaedia of Applied Plant Sciences.3(2017): 435–441. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394807-6.00177-5.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Hem Kumar Subba, Yogeeta Dahal, Bala Ram Mafchan, Sheto Kumar Ghalley, Bhakti Sharma Koirala
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright in their articles.
Articles in the European Journal of Ecology published 2020 and after are made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license.
Articles in the European Journal of Ecology published 2015-2019 are made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 license.