A diminutive pelecinid wasp from the Eocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae)

Main Article Content

Dale Greenwalt
Michael S. Engel


A new genus and species of pelecinid wasp (Proctotrupoidea: Pelecinidae) is described and figured from a single male preserved in oil shale from the middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation of northwestern Montana.  Phasmatopelecinus leonae Greenwalt & Engel, new genus and species, is distinguished from other Tertiary and Mesozoic pelecinids as well as the Recent genus Pelecinus Latreille.  Despite the fact that there are more than 15 times more fossil than living species in the family, P. leonae is only the second Tertiary member of the family discovered to date.

Article Details



Brues, C.T. 1933. The parasitic Hymenoptera of the Baltic amber. Part 1. Bernstein Forschungen 3: 4–178.

Constenius, K. 1996. Late Paleogene extensional collapse of the Cordilleran foreland fold and thrust belt. Geological Society of America Bulletin 108(1): 20–39.

Engel, M.S. 2002. The fossil pelecinid Pelecinopteron tubuliforme Brues in Baltic amber (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 11(1): 5-11.

Engel, M.S., & D.A. Grimaldi. 2006. A diminutive pelecinid wasp in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Northeastern Naturalist 13(2): 291–297.

Engel, M.S., & D.A. Grimaldi. 2013. Zoropelecinus zigrasi, a pelecinid wasp in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Novitates Paleoentomologicae 4: 1–10.

Johnson, N.F. 1998. The fossil pelecinids Pelecinopteron Brues and Iscopinus Kozlov (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea: Pelecinidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 100(1): 1–6.

Johnson, N.F., & L. Musetti. 1999. Revision of the proctotrupoid genus Pelecinus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae). Journal of Natural History 33(10): 1513–1543.

Kozlov, M.A. 1974. An Early Cretaceous ichneumon of the family Pelecinidae (Hymenoptera, Pelecinoidea). Paleontologicheskiy Zhurnal 1974(1): 144–146. [English translation in Paleontological Journal 8(1): 136–138]

Mason, W.R.M. 1986. Standard drawing conventions and definitions for venational and other features of wings of Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 88(1): 1–7.

Rasnitsyn, A.P. 1980. Origin and evolution of Hymenoptera. Trudy Paleontologicheskogo Instituta Akademii Nauk SSSR 174: 1–192. [In Russian]

Shih, C., H. Feng, C. Liu, Y. Zhao, & D. Ren. 2010. Morphology, phylogeny, evolution, and dispersal of pelecinid wasps (Hymenoptera: Pelecinidae) over 165 million years. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103(6): 875–885.

Zhang, H.-C., & A.P. Rasnitsyn. 2004. Pelecinid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Proctotrupoidea) from the Cretaceous of Russia and Mongolia. Cretaceous Research 25(6): 807–825.

Zhang, H.-C., A.P. Rasnitsyn, & J.-F. Zhang. 2002. Pelecinid wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China. Cretaceous Research 23(1): 87–98.

Zhang, J.-F., & A.P. Rasnitsyn. 2006. New extinct taxa of Pelecinidae sensu lato (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) in the Laiyang Formation, Shandong, China. Cretaceous Research 27(5): 684–688.