Examination of the 3x2 Achievement Goal Model in Collegiate Recreation: Comparison Across Sport Programs
Keywords:achievement goal, mastery, performance, recreational sport
AbstractSport is a central achievement context through which participants’ direct competence-related behavior to achieve desired outcomes. Achievement goal theory provides a framework for understanding self-directed behavior in achievement contexts. Theorists postulate that achievement goals reflect one’s purpose and anticipated outcomes which guide behavior. To assess this psychological construct, several achievement goal measures have been developed, from a dichotomous model (Nicholls, 1989) to the most recent 3x2 model (Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011). In the present research, the 3x2 achievement goal model (i.e., task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance) was translated for the collegiate recreational sport domain and tested against alternative theoretical models. A questionnaire was developed and administered to recreational sport participants (N = 614) at a large, post-secondary institution in the United States. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the researchers found the 3x2 model to provide a better fit than the alternative theoretical models. These findings support the most recent theoretical advancement of the achievement goal construct. Through use of multivariate analysis of variance, significant differences across the six achievement goals were found between intramural and sport club participants. These results have implications for researchers and recreational sport practitioners seeking to measure and understand the motivational differences across sport participants.
Abraham, F. E., Roberts, G. C., & Pensgaard, A. M. (2008). Achievement goals and gender effects on multidimensional anxiety in national elite sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 9(4), 449-464. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.06.005
Adie, J. W., Duda, J. L., & Ntoumanis, N. (2010). Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the well- and ill-being of elite youth soccer players over two competitive seasons. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(4), 555-579.
Adie, J. W., & Jowett, S. (2010). Meta-perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship, achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation among sport participants. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40(11), 2750-2773.
Anderson, D. M., & Dixon, A. W. (2009). Winning isn’t everything: Goal orientation and gender differences in university leisure-skills classes. Recreational Sports Journal, 33, 54-64.
Blumenthal, K. J. (2009). Collegiate recreational sports: Pivotal players in student success. Planning for Higher Education, 37(2), 52-62.
Bonett, D. G., & Wright, T. A. (2015). Cronbach’s alpha reliability: Interval estimation, hypothesis testing, and simple size planning. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 3-15.
Cervelló, E. M., Excartí, A., & Guzmán J. F. (2007). Youth sport dropout from the achievement goal theory. Psicothema, 19, 65-71.
Conroy, D. E., Elliot, A. J., & Hofer, S. M. (2003). A 2 x 2 achievement goals questionnaire for sport: Evidence for factorial invariance, temporal stability, and external validity. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 25(4), 456-476.
Cooney, L. (1979). Sport clubs: Their place within the total intramural-recreational sports program. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 50(3), 40-41.
Cury, F., Elliot, A. J., Fonseca, D. D., & Moller, A. C. (2006). The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation and the 2x2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(4), 666-679.
de Bruin, A. P., Bakker, F. C., & Oudejans, R. R. D. (2009). Achievement goal theory and disordered eating: Relationships of disordered eating with goal orientations and motivational climate in female gymnasts and dancers. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10(1), 72-79. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.07.002
Duda, J. L. (1989). Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceived purpose of sport among high school athletes. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 318-335.
Duda, J. L., & Nicholls, J. G. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290-299.
Dunn, T. J., Baguley, T., & Brunsden, V. (2014). From alpha to omega: A practical solution to the pervasive problem of internal consistency estimation. British Journal of Psychology, 105, 399-412.
Dweck, C. S., & Leggett, E. L. (1988). A social-cognitive approach to personality and motivation. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273.
Elliot, A. J. (1999). Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals. Educational Psychologist, 34(3), 169-189. doi:10/1207/s15326985ep3403_3
Elliot, A. J. (2005). A conceptual history of the achievement goal construct. In A. J. Elliot & C. S. Dweck (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation (pp. 52-72). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Elliot, A. J., & Covington, M. V. (2001). Approach and avoidance motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 13(2), 73-92.
Elliot, A. J., Cury, F., Fryer, J. W., & Huguet, P. (2006). Achievement goals, self-handicapping, and performance attainment: A mediational analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 344-361.
Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A meditational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(3), 461-475.
Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2x2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(3), 501-519. doi:10.1037//0022-35184.108.40.2061
Elliot, A. J., Murayama, K., & Pekrun, R. (2011). A 3 x 2 achievement goal model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(3), 632-648.
Fernando-Rio, J., Estrada, J. A. C., Mendez-Gimenez, A., Fernandez-Garcia, B., & Saavedra, P. (2014). 2 x 2 dominant achievement goal profiles in high level swimmers. European Journal of Sport Science, 14(3), 265-272. doi:10.1080/17461391.2013.819383
Forrester, S. (2014). The benefits of campus recreation. Corvallis, OR: NIRSA.
Gilson, T. A., Chow, G. M., & Ewin, M. E. (2008). Using goal orientations to understand motivation in strength training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(4), 1169-1175. doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318173c566
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis with readings. Englewood, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hanrahan, S. J., & Biddle, S. J. H. (2002). Measurement of achievement orientations: Psychometric measures, gender, and sport differences. European Journal of Sport Science, 2(5), 1-12. doi:10.1080/17461390200072502
Hanrahan, S. J., & Cerin, E. (2009). Gender, level of participation, and type of sport: Differences in achievement goal orientation and attributional style. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12, 508-512. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2008.01.005
Kavussanu, M., & Morris, R. L. (2009). The role of approach-avoidance versus task and ego goals in enjoyment and cognitive anxiety in youth sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7(2), 185-202. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2009.9671899
Kavussanu, M., White, S. A., Jowett, S., & England, S. (2011). Elite and non-elite male footballers differ in goal orientation and perceptions of parental climate. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 9(3), 284-290. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2011.614854
Kendall, M. G., & Stuart, A. (1958). The advanced theory of statistics. New York, NY: Hafner.
Krosnick, J. A., Holbrook, A. L., Berent, M. K., Carson, R. T., Hanemann, W. M., Kopp, R. J., ... Conaway, M. (2002). The impact of “no opinion” response options on data quality: Non-attitude reduction or an invitation to satisfice? Public Opinion Quarterly, 66(3), 371-403. doi:10.1086/341394
Lachman, M. (2014). Antecedents of athletes’ achievement goal orientations (Masters thesis). Retrieved from Digital Commons. (1134)
LeUnes, A. (2008). Sport psychology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
Li, F., Harmer, P., & Acock, A. (1996). The task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire: Construct equivalence and mean differences across gender. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 228-238.
Lower, L. M., Turner, B. A., & Petersen, J. C. (2015). Does greater opportunity for recreational sport involvement translate to greater degree of involvement? International Journal of Sport Management, 16(1), 62-76.
Lower, L. M., Turner, B. A., & Petersen, J. C. (2014). Achievement goal orientation as a predictor of sport involvement and perceived benefits of sport involvement: Examination of a mixture model. Journal of SPORT, 3(1), 63-101.
Lower, L. M., Turner, B. A., & Petersen, J. C. (2013). A comparative analysis of perceived benefits of participation between recreational sport programs. Recreational Sports Journal, 37, 66-83.
Mascret, N., Elliot, A. J., & Cury, F. (2014). Extending the 3 x 2 achievement goal model to the sport domain: The 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire for Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 17, 7-14.
Morata-Ramirez, M. A., & Holgado-Tello, F. P. (2013). Construct validity of likert scales through confirmatory factor analysis: A simulation study comparing different methods of estimation based on pearson and polychoric correlations. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 1(1), 54-61.
Mull, R. F., Bayless, K. G., & Jamieson, L. M. (2005). Recreational sport management (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328-346.
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nicholls, J. G., & Dweck, C. S. (1979). A definition of achievement motivation. Unpublished manuscript, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL.
Nien, C., & Duda, J. L. (2008). Antecedents and consequences of approach and avoidance achievement goals: A test of gender invariance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 352-372.
Papaioannou, A. G., Milosis, D., Kosmidou, E., & Tsigilis, N. (2007). Motivational climate and achievement goals at the situational level of generality. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 38-66. doi:10.1080/10413200601113778
Roberts, G. C., Treasure, D. C., & Conroy, D. E. (2007). Understanding the dynamics of motivation in sport and physical activity: An achievement goal interpretation. In G. Tenenbaum, & R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.; pp. 3-30). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Riou, F., Bioché, J., Doron, J., Romain, A. J., Ninot, G., Gernigon, C., … D’Arripe-Longueville, F. (2012). Development and validation of the French Achievement Goal Questionnaire for Sport and Exercise (FAGQSE). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28, 313-320.
Schumacker, R. E. & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Seifritz, J., Duda, J. L., & Chi, L. (1992). The relationship of perceived motivational climate to achievement-related affect and cognitions in basketball. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 375-391.
Siekpe, J. S. (2005). An examination of the multidimensionality of flow construct in a computer-mediated environments. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 6(1), 31-43.
Spray, C. M., Wang, C. K. J., Biddle, S. J. H., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2006). Understanding motivation in sport: An experimental test of achievement goal and self determination theories. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(1), 43-51. doi:10.1080/17461390500422879
Stevens, J.P. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Stoeber, J., Uphill, M. A., & Hotham, S. (2009). Predicting race performance in triathlon: The role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31(2), 211-245.
Wang, C. K. J., Biddle, S. J. H., & Elliot, A. J. (2007). The 2x2 achievement goals framework in a physical education context. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8, 147-168.
Yperen, N. W. V. (2006). A novel approach to assessing achievement goals in the context of the 2x2 framework: Identifying distinct profiles of individuals with different dominant achievement goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(11), 1432-1445.
Yperen, N. W. V., & Renkema, L. J. (2008). Performing great and the purpose of performing better than others: On the recursive of the achievement goal adoption process. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 260-271. doi:10.1002/ejsp.425
How to Cite
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-ND) License
1. License. You retain the copyright for your work. You here by grant to us a worldwide, non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable license to:
• Reproduce, distribute and display the edited manuscript in the Journal of Amateur Sport (and other publications prepared by us or on our behalf) in any media now or hereafter known (including without limitation electronic publications such as the Internet, Google Scholar, and social media)
We do not restrict your distribution or use of the manuscript following publication in the Journal of Amateur Sport (in fact, we encourage it!). However, we have the right to publish the manuscript first on the journal website. Thus, the foregoing licenses are exclusive to us prior to our publication of the manuscript. You confirm that you have disclosed to us all previous or pending public disseminations of the manuscript, including without limitation any publications or acceptances by other journals or disseminations via websites or conference proceedings.
2. Other Confirmations. You confirm that you are the manuscripts sole author(s); you have the right to convey the foregoing licenses; the manuscript does not infringe any third party copyright, publicity/privacy right or other proprietary right; and the manuscript is not defamatory or otherwise unlawful. You shall defend and indemnify us against all claims based on any alleged breach of your confirmations in this contract.
Compensation: You will receive one (1) free copy (PDF) of the article published online in the Journal of Amateur Sport. You will receive no royalty or other monetary return from the Journal of Amateur Sport for use of the article. You do, however, have our extreme gratitude!
3. Entire Contract. This contract is the sole and exclusive agreement between the parties regarding the manuscript and supersedes all prior conversations and understandings regarding its subject matter. This contract may be modified or supplemented only by a mutually signed writing.