Parenting and Motocross: The Whoops and Downs
Parenting is a key contributor to socialization (Collins, Maccoby, Steinberg, Hetherington, & Bornstein, 2000). Many studies address the influences of parenting and contextual factors on child development (Belsky, 1984). Although long-term contextual factors have been shown to be associated with parenting behaviors (La Placa & Corlyon, 2016), little research exists on the degree to which short-term situational contexts may affect parenting. This study addressed two research questions 1) to identify both predictors and results of changes in parenting behaviors during the high investment sport of motocross bike racing and 2) to understand what effect the activity has on family dynamics. Survey data was collected from 33 parents at several child/adolescent competitions held at a Pronational Motocross track in Minnesota. A series of regression analyses were conducted followed by a path analysis. First, results indicated that levels of family cohesion, conflict, and achievement orientation affected parenting behavior before and after the race. Cohesion was positively related to increases in warmth expressed by the coaching parent, or the parent who spends the most time with the child trackside. Conflict was found to negatively predict expressed warmth by the coaching parent. Second, the results indicated that change in parenting behavior before and after a race was also associated with child behavior after the race.
Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child development, 83-96.
Behnke, A. O., MacDermid, S. M., Coltrane, S. L., Parke, R. D., Duffy, S.,
& Widaman, K. F. (2008). Family cohesion in the lives of Mexican American and European American parents. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(4), 1045-1059.
Brown, E.W., Branta, C.F. (1988). Competitive Sports for Children and Youth. Human Kinetics (16), 227-245.
Bois, J. E., Lalanne, J., & Delforge, C. (2009). The influence of parenting practices and parental presence on children's and adolescents' pre-competitive anxiety. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(10), 995-1005.
Cohen, S. (2004). Social relationships and health. American Psychologist, 59, 676-684.
Collins, W. A., Maccoby, E. E., Steinberg, L., Hetherington, E. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting: the case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55(2), 218.
Cummings, E. M., & Davies, P. T. (2002). Effects of marital conflict on children: Recent advances and emerging themes in process?oriented research. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(1), 31-63.
Dweck, Carol S.; Leggett, Ellen L. (1988). "A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality." Psychological Review 95 (2): 256–273. doi:10.1037/0033- 295X.95.2.256. ISSN 0033-295X
Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1991). Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the Eccles' expectancy-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3, 7-35.
Erel, O., Margolin, G., & John, R.S., (1998). Observed sibling interaction: Links with the martial and mother-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34, 288- 298.
Farrell, M. P., Barnes, G. M., & Banerjee, S. (1995). Family cohesion as a buffer against the effects of problem-drinking fathers on psychological distress, deviant behavior, and heavy drinking in adolescents. Journal of health and social behavior, 377-385.
Fauber, R. L., Forehand, R., Thomas, A. M., & Wierson, M. (1990). A mediational model of the impact of marital conflict on adolescent adjustment in intact and divorced families: The role of disrupted parenting. Child Development, 61, 1112-1123.
Fredricks, J. A., J. S. Eccles (2004). Parental Influences on Youth Involvement in Sports. In Weiss, Maureen (Ed.), Developmental Sport and Exercise Psychology: A Lifespan Perspective (pp. 145-164). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10(1), 76-88.
Grych, J. H., & Fincham, F. D. (1990). Marital conflict and children's adjustment: a cognitive-contextual framework. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 267.
Harris, T. L., & Molock, S. D. (2000). Cultural orientation, family cohesion, and family support in suicide ideation and depression among African American college students. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 30(4), 341-353.
Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Bridges, K. (2012). Measurement and model building in studying the influence of socioeconomic status on child development. The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development, 590-606.
Holguin, J. (2004, February 9). Dad Body-Slams High School Ref. Retrieved April 15, 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/dad-body-slams-high-school-ref/
Jouriles, E. N., Murphy, C. M., Farris, A. M., Smith, D. A., Richters, J. E., & Waters, E. (1991). Marital adjustment, parental disagreements about child rearing, and behavior problems in boys: Increasing the specificity of the marital assessment. Child Development, 62(6), 1424-1433.
Katz, L. F., & Low, S. M. (2004). Marital violence, co-parenting, and family-level processes in relation to children’s adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 18,372–382.
Koblinsky, S. A., Kuvalanka, K. A. and Randolph, S. M. (2006), Social Skills and Behavior Problems of Urban, African American Preschoolers: Role of Parenting Practices, Family Conflict, and Maternal Depression. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76: 554–563. doi: 10.1037/0002-9422.214.171.1244
Krishnakumar, A., & Buehler, C. (2000). Interparental conflict and parenting behaviors: A meta?analytic review. Family Relations, 49(1), 25-44.
Knight, C. J., Neely, K. C., & Holt, N. L. (2011). Parental behaviors in team sports: how do female athletes want parents to behave?. Journal of applied sport psychology, 23(1), 76-92.
Leidy, M. S., Guerra, N. G., & Toro, R. I. (2012). Positive parenting, family cohesion, and child social competence among immigrant Latino families. Journal of Latina/o Psychology, (1), 3-13.
Leventhal, T., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2000). The neighborhoods they live in: The effects of neighborhood residence on child and adult outcomes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 309–336.
Lindstrom Bremer, K. (2012). Parental involvement, pressure, and support in youth sport: A narrative literature review. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 4(3), 235-248.
McCullough, M., & Scherman, A. (1998). Family-of-origin interaction and adolescent mothers'potential for child abuse. Adolescence, 31 (3), 145-154.
Moore, L. L., Lombardi, D. A., White, M. J., Campbell, J. L., Oliveria, S. A., & Ellison, R. C. (1991). Influence of parents' physical activity levels on activity levels of young children. The Journal of pediatrics, 118(2), 215-219.
Partridge, J. A., Brustad, R. J., & Babkes Stellino, M. (2008). Social influence in sport. Advances in Sport Psychology, 3, 269-291.
Prevatt, F. F. (2003). The contribution of parenting practices in a risk and resiliency model of children's adjustment. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(4), 469-480.
Power, T. G., & Woolger, C. (1994). Parenting practices and age-group swimming: A correlational study. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, 65(1), 59-66.
Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., & Taylor, W. C. (2000). A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(5), 963-975.
Schoppe, S. J., Mangelsdorf, S. C., & Frosch, C. A. (2001). Coparenting, family process, and family structure: Implications for preschoolers’ externalizing behavior problems. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 526–545.
Segrin, C., Woszidlo, A., Givertz, M., Bauer, A., & Taylor Murphy, M. (2012). The association between overparenting, parent?child communication, and entitlement and adaptive traits in adult children. Family Relations, 61(2), 237-252.
Stealey, B. B. (2008, August 27). Features. Retrieved January 10, 2017, from http://racerxonline.com/2008/08/27/motocross-faqs
Snyder, E. E., & Spreitzer, E. A. (1973). Family influence and involvement in sports. Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, 44(3), 249-255.
Strassberg, Z., Dodge, K.A., Pettit, G.S., & Bates, J.E., (1994). Spanking in the home and children’s subsequent aggression toward kindergarten peers. Development and Psychopathology, 6, 445-461.
Theiriault Boots, M. (2014, March 14). Father, son share love of Special Olympics hockey. Retrieved April 20, 2015, from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/mar/16/father-son-share-love- of-special-olympics-hockey/print/
Woolger, C., & PoIr, T. G. (2000). Parenting and children's intrinsic motivation in age group swimming. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(6), 595-607.
Copyright (c) 2017 Marissa Emily Holst
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-ND) License
1. License. You retain the copyright for your work. You here by grant to us a worldwide, non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable license to:
• Reproduce, distribute and display the edited manuscript in the Journal of Amateur Sport (and other publications prepared by us or on our behalf) in any media now or hereafter known (including without limitation electronic publications such as the Internet, Google Scholar, and social media)
We do not restrict your distribution or use of the manuscript following publication in the Journal of Amateur Sport (in fact, we encourage it!). However, we have the right to publish the manuscript first on the journal website. Thus, the foregoing licenses are exclusive to us prior to our publication of the manuscript. You confirm that you have disclosed to us all previous or pending public disseminations of the manuscript, including without limitation any publications or acceptances by other journals or disseminations via websites or conference proceedings.
2. Other Confirmations. You confirm that you are the manuscripts sole author(s); you have the right to convey the foregoing licenses; the manuscript does not infringe any third party copyright, publicity/privacy right or other proprietary right; and the manuscript is not defamatory or otherwise unlawful. You shall defend and indemnify us against all claims based on any alleged breach of your confirmations in this contract.
Compensation: You will receive one (1) free copy (PDF) of the article published online in the Journal of Amateur Sport. You will receive no royalty or other monetary return from the Journal of Amateur Sport for use of the article. You do, however, have our extreme gratitude!
3. Entire Contract. This contract is the sole and exclusive agreement between the parties regarding the manuscript and supersedes all prior conversations and understandings regarding its subject matter. This contract may be modified or supplemented only by a mutually signed writing.