Collegiate Sport Participation and Student-Athlete Development through the Lens of Emotional Intelligence
Keywords:athletics, intrapersonal development, interpersonal development, liberal arts, division III
A continued debate persists over the place of sport within institutions of higher education. Proponents of sport champion its ability to contribute to a holistic notion of education and develop an array of competencies touted in institutional missions. There is however a dearth of empirical data examining the educational impact of athletic participation at the college level. This paper assessed the educational ability of collegiate sport participation in a unique manner, through the lens of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Student-athletes and students at five NCAA Division III institutions completed online assessments prior to and after the completion of the winter sports seasons. Evidence was produced that participation in a single season of collegiate sport does not develop interpersonal, intrapersonal, and leadership capacities significantly differently from the collegiate experience of students not participating in athletics. Institutions are advised to explore EI interventions as way to maximize the educative potential of sport.
Ajayi, M. & Fatokun A. L. (2008). Effect of a six-week emotional intelligence programme on the sports performance of amateur athletes in oyo state of nigeria. Retrieved from http://sircretriever.ca/africaresearchaward/
Aries, E., McCarthy, D., Salovey, P., & Banaji, M. R. (2004). A comparison of athletes and non-athletes at highly selective colleges: Academic performance and personal development. Research in Higher Education,45(6), 577-602.
Arora, S., Russ, S., Petrides, K.V., Sirimanna, P., Aggarwal, R., Darzi, A., & Sevdalis, N. (2011). Academic Medicine, 86(10), 1311-1317. doi:
Beard, C. M., & Wilson, J. P. (2006). Experiential learning: A best practice handbook for educators and trainers. Kogan Page Publishers.
Blaich, C.F., Bost, A., Chan, E., & Lynch, R. (2006). Defining Liberal Arts Education. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved from http://www.liberalarts.wabash.edu/
Botterill, C., & Brown, M. (2002). Emotion and perspective in sport. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 33(1), 38-60.
Bouchet, A., & Hutchinson, M. (2011). Organizational escalation and retreat in university athletics: Brand insulation in Birmingham-Southern College’s transition to Division III athletics. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 4(2), 261-282. doi: 1010007/s11136-015-1214-1
Boyatzis, R.E., Stubbs, E.C., & Taylor, S.N. (2002). Learning cognitive and emotional intelligence competencies through graduate management education. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 1(2), 150-162. doi: 10.5465/AMLE.2002.8509345
Brand, M. N. (2006). The role and value of intercollegiate athletics in universities. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 33, 9-20. doi: 10.1080/00948705.2006.9714687
Caruso, D. (2004). Defining the inkblot called emotional intelligence. Issues in Emotional Intelligence, 1(1), 1-8.
Clark, S.C., Callister, R., & Wallace, R. (2003). Undergraduate management skills courses and students’ emotional intelligence. Journal of Management Education, 27(1), 3-23. doi:10.1177/1052562902239246
Cohen, J (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2009). An integrative definition of coaching effectiveness and expertise. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4(3), 307-323. doi: 10.1260/174795409789623892
Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. (2009). Emotional intelligence scores predict team sports performance in a national cricket competition. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 4(2), 209-224. doi: 10.1260/174795409788549544
Crombie, D., Lombard, C., & Noakes, T. (2011). Increasing emotional intelligence in cricketers: An intervention study. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 6(1), 69-86. doi: 10.1260/1747-95220.127.116.11
Danish, S.J. (1983). Musings about personal competence: The contributions of sport, health, and fitness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11(3), 221-240. doi: 10.1007/BF00893365
Danish, S.J., Petitpas, A.J., & Hale, B.D. (2007): Sport as a context for developing competence. In Smith, D. & Bar-Eli, M., (Eds.), Essential Readings in Sport and Exercise Psychology, (pp. 412-422). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Durden, W. G., (2009). Frontier Pragmatism: The importance of place in an undergraduate education. Retrieved from http://www.dickinson.edu/news/convocation/ 2009/remarks2009.html
Emerson, J., Brooks, R. L., & McKenzie, E. C. (2009). College athletics and student achievement: The evidence at small colleges. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2009(144), 65-76. doi: 10.1002/ir.314
Feezell, R. (2015). Branding the role and value of intercollegiate athletics. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 42(2), 185-207. doi: 10.1080/00948705.2014.911098
Feezell, T. (2015). Educated ignorance: What faculty don’t know and why faculty can’t lead intercollegiate athletics reform. Journal of Amateur Sport, 1(1), 81-100. doi: 10.17161/jas.v1i1.4925
Gilbert, W. D. & Trudel, P. (2001). Learning to coach through experience: Reflection in model youth sport coaches. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 21, 16-34. doi: 10.1123/jtpe.21.1.16
Gould, D. & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport: Current status and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(1), 58-78. doi: 10.1080/17509840701834573
Hanin, Y.L. (2000). Emotions in Sport. Champlain, IL: Human Kinetics.
Henson, R. K. (2001). Understanding internal consistency reliability estimates: A conceptual primer on coefficient alpha. Measurement and evaluation in counseling and development, 34(3), 177.
Houghton, J.D., Wu, J., Godwin, J.L., Neck, C.P., & Manz, C.C. (2012). Effective stress management: A model of emotional intelligence, self-leadership, and student stress coping. Journal of Management Education, 36(2), 220-238. doi: 10.1177/1052562911430205
Jarvis, P. (1987). Adult learning in the social context. London: Croom Helm.
Joseph, D.L., & Newman, D.A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 54-78. doi: 10.1037/a0017286
Knapp, J.C. (2013). For liberal arts colleges, no time to be content with status quo. Vital Speeches of the Day, 79(12), 397-400.
Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Lam, T. L. & Kirby, S.L. (2002). Is emotional intelligence an advantage? An exploration of the impact of emotional and general intelligence on individual performance. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(1), 133-143. doi: 10.1080/00224540209603891
Lane, A. M., Thelwell, R. C., Lowther, J., & Devonport, T. J. (2009). Emotional intelligence and psychological skills use among athletes. Social Behavior and Personality, 37(2), 195-201. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2009.37.2.195
Lillis, M. P. (2012). Faculty emotional intelligence and student-faculty interactions: Implications for student retention. Journal of College Student Retention, 13(2), 155-178. doi: 10.2190/CS.13.2.b
Lomax, R. G., & Hahs-Vaughn, D. L. (2012). An introduction to statistical concepts. Routledge.
Lowry, R.L. (2014). A traditional, liberal arts, competency-based education. Innovative Practices, Fall. Retrieved from https://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/A-Traditional,-Liberal-Arts,-Competency- BasedEducation.aspx
Lytle, J.H. (2003). Missions, markets, and muscle: The intersection of ideals and realities in the debate over athletics at selective liberal arts colleges (Doctoral dissertation). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved from ProQuest. (3084867)
Márquez, P. G. O., Martín, R. P., & Brackett, M. A. (2006). Relating emotional intelligence to social competence and academic achievement in high school students. Psicothema, 18(Suplemento), 118-123.
Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D.R., (2000): Models of emotional intelligence. In Sternberg, R. J., (Ed.), Handbook of Intelligence, (pp. 396-420). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D.R., & Cherkasskiy, L. (2011): Emotional intelligence. In Sternberg, R.J. & Kaufman, S.B., The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence, (pp. 528-545). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Meyer, B. B., & Fletcher, T. B. (2007). Emotional intelligence: A theoretical overview and implications for research and professional practice in sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(1), 1-15. doi: 10.1080/10413200601102904
Mikolajczak, M. (2009). Going beyond the ability-trait debate: The three-level model of emotional intelligence, Electric Journal of Applied Psychology, 5(2), 25-31.
Mills, L. B. (2009). A meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and effective leadership. Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, 3(2), 22-38. doi:10.3776/joci.2009.v3n2p22-38
National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2015). NCAA Division III intercollegiate athletics programs report (2004-2014). Indianapolis, IN: Daniel L. Fulks.
National Liberal Arts College Rankings. (2016). US News and World Report. Retrieved from http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/rankings/
Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidbach, J., Hansenne, M., Weyens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships and employability. Emotion, 11(2), 354–366. doi: 10.1037/a0021554
O’Boyle, E.H., Humphrey, R.H., Pollack, J.M., Hawver, T.H., & Story, P.A. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 788-818. doi: 10.1002/job.714
Perlini, A. H., & Halverson, T. R. (2006). Emotional intelligence in the National Hockey League. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38(2), 109-119. doi: 10.1037/cjbs2006001
Petrides, K.V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 277-293. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(03)00084-9
Petrides, K.V. & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313-320. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00195-6
Pool, L. D. & Qualter, P. (2013). Emotional self-efficacy, graduate employability, and career satisfactions: Testing the associations. Australian Journal of Psychology, 65, 214-223. doi: 10.1111/ajpy.12023
Qualter, P., Whiteley, H., Morley, A., & Dudiak, H. (2009). The role of emotional Intelligence in the decision to persist with academic studies in HE. Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 14(3), 219-231. doi: 10.1080/13596740903139255
Rasmussen, R. & Rasmussen, W. (2003). NCAA Division III profile of institutions and conferences. National Association of Division III Athletic Administrators Resource Library. Retrieved from http://www.uaa.rochester.edu/Administrative/Form_and_ Document_Library/Division_III_Profile.pdf
Salovey, P. & Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211. doi: 10.2190/DUGG-P24E-52WK-6CDG
Sauer, S., Desmond, S., & Heintzelman, M. (2013). Beyond the playing field: The role of athletic participation in early career success. Personnel Review, 42(6), 644-661. doi: 10.1108/PR-08-2012-0149
Schutte, N.S. (2014). Social environment contexts of trait emotional intelligence. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 24, 741-750. doi: 10.1080/10911359.2013.866065
Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2002). Incorporating emotional skills content in a college transition course enhances student retention. Journal of 1st-Year Experience, 14(1), 7-21.
Schutte, N. S., & Malouff, J. M. (2013). Adaptive emotional functioning: A comprehensive model of emotional intelligence. In C. Mohiyeddini, M. Eysenck, & S. Bauer (Eds), Handbook of Psychology of Emotions: Recent Theoretical Perspectives and Novel Empirical Findings (pp. 469–488). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Bhullar, N. (2009): The assessing emotions scale. In Stough, C., Saklofske, D., & Parker, J. (Eds.) Assessing emotional intelligence, (pp. 119-135). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Bobik, C., Coston, T. D., Greeson, C., Jedlicka, C., ... & Wendorf, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence and interpersonal relations. The Journal of Social Psychology, 141(4), 523-536. doi: 10.1080/00224540109600569
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Hall, L.E., Haggerty, D.J., Cooper, J.T., Golden, C.J., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167-177. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00001-4
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., & Hine, D. W. (2011). The association ofability and trait emotional intelligence with alcohol problems. Addiction Research and Theory, 19, 260-265. doi: 10.3109/16066359.2010.512108
Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E. (2007). A meta-analytic investigation of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 921–933. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.09.003
Seifert, T.A., Goodman, K.M., Lindsay, N., Jorgensen, J.D., Wolniak, G. C., Pascarella, E.T., & Blaich, C. (2008). The effects of liberal arts experiences on liberal arts outcomes. Research in Higher Education, 49(2), 107-125. doi: 10.1007/s11162-007-9070-7
Shulman, J. L. & Bowen, W. G. (2001). The game of life: College sports and educational values. Princeton University Press.
Song, L.J., Huang, G., Peng, K.Z., Law, K.S., Wong, C., & Chen, Z. (2010). The differential effects of general mental ability and emotional intelligence on academic performance and social interactions. Intelligence, 38, 137-148. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2009.09.003
Sough, C., Clements, M., Wallish, L., & Downey, L. (2009): Emotional intelligence in sport: Theoretical linkages and preliminary empirical relationships from basketball. In Stough, C., Saklofske, D. H., & Parker, J. D. (Eds.), Assessing Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Research, and Applications, (pp. 291-305). Springer Science Media.
Stancill, J. (2014, October 31). UNC-CH faculty want to regain trust, take stronger stance on athletics. Newsobserver.com, Retrieved form http://www.newsobserver.com /2014/10/31/4281923_unc-ch-faculty-want-to-regain.html?sp=/ 99/102/110/112/973/&rh=1
Stough, C., Saklofske, D., & Parker, J. (2009): A brief analysis of 20 years of emotional intelligence: An introduction to assessing emotional intelligence: Theory, research, and applications. In Stough, C., Saklofske, D., & Parker, J. (Eds.) Assessing emotional intelligence, (pp. 119-135). New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, C.S. (2013). Using multivariate statists (6th ed.). Pearson.
Thelwell, R. C., Lane, A. M., Weston, N. J., & Greenlees, I. A. (2008). Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(2), 224-235. doi: 10.1080/1612197X.2008.9671863
Van Rooy, D.L. & Viswesvaran, C. (2007): Assessing emotional intelligence in adults: A review of the most popular measures. In Bar-On, R., Maree, J.G., & Elias, M.J., Educating People to be emotionally intelligent, (pp. 259-272). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Vela, R. H. (2007). Emotional intelligence: An education-based approach to improve student achievement. National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 20(1), 80-94.
Vella, S. A., Crowe, T. P., & Oades, L. G. (2013). Increasing the effectiveness of formal coach education: Evidence of a parallel process. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 8(2), 417-430. doi: 10.1007/s11136-015-1214-1
Whitney, C. (2010). Social Supports among college students and measures of alcohol use, perceived stress, satisfaction with life, emotional intelligence and coping. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 4(1), 49-67. doi: 10.21913/JSW.v4i1.588
Zizzi, S., Deaner, H., & Hirschhorn, D. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and performance among college basketball players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15(3), 262-269. doi: 10.1080/10413200305390
How to Cite
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-ND) License
1. License. You retain the copyright for your work. You here by grant to us a worldwide, non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable license to:
• Reproduce, distribute and display the edited manuscript in the Journal of Amateur Sport (and other publications prepared by us or on our behalf) in any media now or hereafter known (including without limitation electronic publications such as the Internet, Google Scholar, and social media)
We do not restrict your distribution or use of the manuscript following publication in the Journal of Amateur Sport (in fact, we encourage it!). However, we have the right to publish the manuscript first on the journal website. Thus, the foregoing licenses are exclusive to us prior to our publication of the manuscript. You confirm that you have disclosed to us all previous or pending public disseminations of the manuscript, including without limitation any publications or acceptances by other journals or disseminations via websites or conference proceedings.
2. Other Confirmations. You confirm that you are the manuscripts sole author(s); you have the right to convey the foregoing licenses; the manuscript does not infringe any third party copyright, publicity/privacy right or other proprietary right; and the manuscript is not defamatory or otherwise unlawful. You shall defend and indemnify us against all claims based on any alleged breach of your confirmations in this contract.
Compensation: You will receive one (1) free copy (PDF) of the article published online in the Journal of Amateur Sport. You will receive no royalty or other monetary return from the Journal of Amateur Sport for use of the article. You do, however, have our extreme gratitude!
3. Entire Contract. This contract is the sole and exclusive agreement between the parties regarding the manuscript and supersedes all prior conversations and understandings regarding its subject matter. This contract may be modified or supplemented only by a mutually signed writing.