Examining the Role of Relative Age on Leadership Behaviours among Female Ice Hockey Players: An Exploratory Investigation
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of relative age on self-reported leadership behaviors among competitive female ice hockey players. Secondary purposes included examining whether a relative age effect (RAE) was present within the sample and if leadership behaviors differed according to leader status (i.e., formal versus informal leaders). Canadian female ice hockey players (ages 15-18 years) completed an online survey that contained the Leadership Scale for Sport along with additional demographic questions. Players were segmented into birth quartiles based upon Hockey Canada’s selection date and classified by leadership status. The MANOVA suggested that the frequency of leadership behaviors displayed by these athletes did not differ across birth quartiles. Furthermore, although there was a RAE trend within this sample of competitive female ice hockey players, the differences relative to population distributions were not statistically significant. Finally, formal leaders (i.e., captains/alternate captains) reported higher levels of social support, positive feedback, democratic behavior, and training and instruction than informal leaders. It appears that relative age is not a discriminating factor with respect to leadership behaviors. Competitive female ice hockey may be an avenue for all players, regardless of their date of birth, to develop and demonstrate leadership.
Copyright (c) 2020 Laura Chittle, Sean Horton, Jess C. Dixon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-ND) License
1. License. You retain the copyright for your work. You here by grant to us a worldwide, non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable license to:
• Reproduce, distribute and display the edited manuscript in the Journal of Amateur Sport (and other publications prepared by us or on our behalf) in any media now or hereafter known (including without limitation electronic publications such as the Internet, Google Scholar, and social media)
We do not restrict your distribution or use of the manuscript following publication in the Journal of Amateur Sport (in fact, we encourage it!). However, we have the right to publish the manuscript first on the journal website. Thus, the foregoing licenses are exclusive to us prior to our publication of the manuscript. You confirm that you have disclosed to us all previous or pending public disseminations of the manuscript, including without limitation any publications or acceptances by other journals or disseminations via websites or conference proceedings.
2. Other Confirmations. You confirm that you are the manuscripts sole author(s); you have the right to convey the foregoing licenses; the manuscript does not infringe any third party copyright, publicity/privacy right or other proprietary right; and the manuscript is not defamatory or otherwise unlawful. You shall defend and indemnify us against all claims based on any alleged breach of your confirmations in this contract.
Compensation: You will receive one (1) free copy (PDF) of the article published online in the Journal of Amateur Sport. You will receive no royalty or other monetary return from the Journal of Amateur Sport for use of the article. You do, however, have our extreme gratitude!
3. Entire Contract. This contract is the sole and exclusive agreement between the parties regarding the manuscript and supersedes all prior conversations and understandings regarding its subject matter. This contract may be modified or supplemented only by a mutually signed writing.