The bee fauna of an Atlantic coastal plain tidal marsh community in Southern New England, USA

Authors

  • Tracy A. Zarrillo The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station
  • Kimberly A. Stoner The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17161/jom.v0i86.7334

Abstract

 With growing evidence of changes in local abundance, geographical range, and species diversity of wild bees, it is imperative to document wild bee communities in representative habitats throughout North America. The Connecticut shoreline has historically been subject to many natural and anthropogenic disturbances, and there is a lack of baseline data regarding bee biodiversity in Connecticut’s maritime habitats. In this study, we characterize the wild bee fauna of a discrete maritime habitat in Connecticut, USA, and examine salt-marsh, beach dune, and coastal scrub bee communities adjacent to Long Island Sound. Patterns found are discussed in relation to recent coastal surveys in New England. Biweekly surveys were conducted at Grass Island (Guilford, CT) over a two-year period (2011-2012) using pan traps and effort-based (timed) net collecting from flowers. A total of 3928 individual bees were collected, representing five families, 18 genera and at least 80 species. Floral records for 374 individuals resulted in associations of 35 bee species with 19 species of flowers. Seventy percent of the bees captured in the net survey were visiting alien plants, with the exotic Rosa rugosa Thunb. having the highest level of bee diversity and relative abundance. The total number of bee species collected in this survey represents approximately 23% of the known Connecticut fauna, including four specialists associated with coastal and wetland habitats. The abundance and diversity of bees visiting alien plants on Grass Island, as well as the occurrence of these sand specialists, may prove to be of conservation concern as the Connecticut shoreline continues to be altered.

 

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Abrams, J., & G.C. Eickwort. 1980. Biology of the communal sweat bee Agapostemon virescens (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) in New York State. Search: Agriculture (Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station) 1: 1–20.

Arduser, M. 2009. Key to Hylaeus species known from MO (males and females).

[http://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/nativebees/Arduser_keys/MO%20Hylaeus%20key.pdf; last accessed 26 January 2018]

Ascher, J.S., S. Kornbluth, & R.G. Goelet. 2014. Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila)

of Gardiners Island, Suffolk County, New York. Northeast Naturalist 21(1): 47–71.

Ascher, J.S., J. Pickering, S. Droege, & S. Kolski. 2017. Discover Life bee species guide and world checklist (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila).

[http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Apoidea_species; last accessed 18 December 2017].

Ashmead, W.H. 1894. The habits of the Aculeate Hymenoptera, I. Psyche 7(214): 19–26.

Atwood, C.E. 1933. Studies on the Apoidea of western Novia Scotia with special reference to visitors of apple bloom. Canadian Journal of Research 9(5): 443–457.

Balcom, P.H., W.F. Fitzgerald, G.M. Vandal, C.H. Lamborg, K.R. Rolfhus, C.S. Langer, & C.R. Hammerschmidt. 2004. Mercury sources and cycling in the Connecticut River and Long Island Sound. Marine Chemistry 90(1): 53–74.

Batra, S.W.T. 1978. Osmia cornifrons and Pithitis smaragdula two Asian bees introduced into the United States for crop pollination, in Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Pollination. Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Special Miscellaneous Publication 1: 307–312.

Batra, S.W.T. 1980. Ecology, behavior, pheromones, parasites and management of the sympatric vernal bees Colletes inaequalis, C. thoracicus and C. validus. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 53(3): 509–538.

Bouseman, J.K., & W.E. LaBerge. 1978. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part IX. Subgenus Melandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 104(3/4): 275–389.

Breed, M.D. 1975. Life cycle and behavior of a primitively social bee, Lasioglossum rohweri (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 48(1): 64–80.

Britton, W.E. 1920. Check-list of the insects of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin 31: 5–397.

Britton, W.E. 1938. Additions to the check-list of the insects of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey, Bulletin 60: 9–207.

Brown, B.J., R.J. Mitchell, & S.A. Graham. 2002. Competition for pollination between an invasive species (purple loosestrife) and a native congener. Ecology 83(8): 2328–2336.

Bruun, H.H. 2005. Biological flora of the British Isles No. 239. Rosa rugosa Thunb. ex Murray. Journal of Ecology 93(2): 441–470.

Buchmann, S.L. & G.P. Nabhan. 1996. The Forgotten Pollinators. Island Press, Shearwater

Books, Washington, DC.; 292 pp.

Burnham, S.H. & R.A. Latham. 1917. The flora of the town of Southold, Long Island and Gardiner’s Island. Torreya 17(7): 111–122.

Cane, J.H. 1991. Soils of ground-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea): texture, moisture, cell depth and climate. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 64(4): 406–413.

Cane, J.H. 2003. Exotic non-social bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in North America: Ecological implications. In: Strickler, K. & J. H. Cane (Eds.), For Non-native Crops, Whence Pollinators for the Future: 113–126. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America.

Cane, J.H., T. Griswold, & F.D. Parker. 2007. Substrates and materials used for nesting by North American Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100(3): 350–358.

Cane J.H., R.L. Minckley, & L.J. Kervin. 2000. Sampling bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for pollinator community studies: pitfalls of pan-trapping. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 73(4): 225–231.

Chao, A. 1984. Non-parametric estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics 11(4): 265–70.

Chao, A., & S-M. Lee. 1992. Estimating the number of classes via sample coverage. Journal of the American Statistical Association 87(417): 210–217.

Chao, A., M-C. Ma, & M.C.K. Yang. 1993. Stopping rule and estimation for recapture debugging and unequal failure rates. Biometrika 80(1): 193–201.

Chao, A., R.K. Colwell, C-W. Lin, & N.J. Gotelli. 2009. Sufficient sampling for asymptotic minimum species richness estimators. Ecology 90(4): 1125–1133.

Chazdon, R.L., R.K. Colwell, J.S. Denslow, & M.R. Guariguata. 1998. Statistical methods for estimating species richness of woody regeneration in primary and secondary rain forests of northeastern Costa Rica. In Dallmeier, F., & J.A. Comiskey (Eds.), Forest biodiversity research, monitoring and modeling: conceptual background and old world case studies: 285–309. Parthenon Publishing; Paris, France.

Chittka L., & S. Schürkens. 2001. Successful invasion of a floral market. Nature 411(6838): 653.

Clarke, J.A., B.A. Harrington, T. Hruby, & F.E. Wasserman. 1984. The effect of ditching for mosquito control on salt marsh use by birds in Rowley, Massachusetts. Journal of Field Ornithology. 55(2): 160–180.

Colla, S.R., F. Gadallah, L. Richardson, D. Wagner, & L Gall. 2012. Assessing declines of North American bumble bees (Bombus spp.) using museum specimens. Biodiversity and Conservation 21(14): 3585–3595.

Colwell, R. 2013. EstimateS: Statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. EstimateS 9.1.0 . User’s Guide. [http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates/EstimateSPages/EstSUsersGuide/EstimateSUsersGuide.htm; last accessed 19 December 2017].

Connecticut Invasive Plant Working Group. 2014. Invasive Plant List. [https://cipwg.uconn.edu/invasive_plant_list/; last accessed 4 December 2017].

CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. 2017a. Tidal wetlands: General

Information. [http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2705&q=323824&depNav_GID=1625;

last accessed 4 December 2017].

CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. 2017b. Overview of Connecticut’s coastal nonpoint source pollution control program.

[http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2705&q=323566&deepNav_GID=1709;

last accessed 4 December 2017].

CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. 2017c. Overview of the Connecticut coastal management program. http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2705&q=323536&deepNav_GID=1622; last accessed 4 December 2017].

CT Department of Energy and Environmental Protection. 2017d. Coastal hazards in Connecticut. [http://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2705&q=480750&deepNav_GID=2022;

last accessed 4 December 2017].

Dibble, A.C., F.A. Drummond, C. Stubbs, M. Veit, & J.S. Ascher. 2017. Bees of Maine, with a state species checklist. Northeastern Naturalist 24(15) : 1-48.

Donovall III, L.R., & D. vanEngelsdorp. 2010. A Checklist of the Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Pennsylvania. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 83(1): 7–24.

Dormann, C.F., B. Gruber, & J. Fründ. 2008. Introducing the bipartite Package: Analysing Ecological Networks. R news 8(2): 8–11.

Droege, S. 2015. The Very Handy Manual: How to catch and identify bees and manage a collection. USGS Native Bee and Inventory Monitoring Lab. [https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/nativebees/Handy%20Bee%20Manual/The%20Very%20Handy%20Manual%20-%202015.pdf; last accessed 19 December 2017].

Droege, S., M.G. Rightmyer, C.S. Sheffield, & S.G. Brady. 2010. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America. Zootaxa 2661: 1–32.

Droege S., V.J. Tepedino, G. Lebuhn, W. Link, R.L. Minckley, Q. Chen, & C. Conrad. 2010. Spatial patterns of bee captures in North American bowl trapping surveys. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3(1): 15–23.

Droege, S.W., & L.H. Shapiro. 2011. An August survey of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in the northeastern port areas of Baltimore, Maryland and the second North American record of Pseudoanthidium nanum (Mocsáry). Maryland Entomologist 5(3): 33–44.

Eickwort, G.C. 1981. Aspects of the Nesting Biology of Five Nearctic Species of Agapostemon (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 54(2): 337–351.

Eickwort, G.C. 1985. The nesting biology of the sweat bee Halictus farinosus in California, with notes on Halictus ligatus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). The Pan-Pacific Entomologist 61: 122–137.

Elmer, W.H., S. Useman, R.W. Schneider, R.E. Marra, J.A. LaMondia, I.A. Mendelssohn, M.M. Jiménez-Gasco, & F.L. Caruso. 2013. Sudden vegetation dieback in Atlantic and Gulf Coast salt marshes. Plant Disease 97(4): 436–445.

Fetridge, E.D., J.S. Ascher, & G.A. Langellotto. 2008. The bee fauna of residential gardens in a suburb of New York City (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(6): 1067–1077.

Fowler, J. 2016. Specialist bees of the Northeast: Host plants and habitat conservation. Northeastern Naturalist 23(2): 305–320.

Gallai, N., J.M. Salles, J.Settele, & B.E. Vaissière. 2009. Economic valuation of the

vulnerability of world agriculture confronted with pollinator decline. Ecological Economics 68: 810–821.

Gibbs, J. 2010. Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini). Zootaxa 2591: 1–382.

Gibbs. J. 2011. Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini). Zootaxa: 3073: 1–216.

Gibbs, J., J. Albert, & L. Packer. 2012a. Dual origins of social parasitism in North American Dialictus (Hymenoptera; Halictidae) confirmed using a phylogenetic approach. Cladistics 28: 195–207.

Gibbs, J., S.G. Brady, K. Kanda, & B.N. Danforth. 2012b. Phylogeny of halictine bees supports a shared origin of eusociality for Halictus and Lasioglossum (Apoidea: Anthophila: Halictidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 926–939.

Gibbs, J., L. Packer, S. Dumesh, & B.N. Danforth. 2013. Revision and reclassification of Lasioglossum (Evylaeus), L. (Hemihalictus), and L. (Sphecodogastra) in eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Zootaxa 3672: 1–117.

Gibbs, J., J.S. Ascher, M.G. Rightmyer, & R. Isaacs. 2017. The bees of Michigan (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila), with notes on distribution, taxonomy, pollination, and natural history. Zootaxa 4352(1): 1–160.

Giles, V., & J.S. Ascher. 2006. A survey of the bees of the Black Rock Forest preserve, New York (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 15(2): 208–231.

Goldstein, P.Z. & J. S. Ascher. 2016. Taxonomic and behavioral composition of an island fauna: A survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) on Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 118(1): 37–92.

Grabas G.P. & T. M. Laverty. 1999. The effect of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.; Lythraceae) on the pollination and reproductive success of sympatric co-flowering wetland plants. Ecoscience 6(2): 230–242.

Graenicher, S. 1930. Bee-fauna and vegetation of the Miami region of Florida. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 23(1): 153–174.

Griffith, G.E., J.M. Omernik, S.A. Bryce, J. Royte, W.D. Hoar, J.W. Homer, D. Keirstead, K.J. Metzler, & G. Hellyer. 2009. Ecoregions of New England (color poster with map, descriptive text, summary tables, and photographs): Reston, Virginia, U.S. Geological Survey (map scale 1:1,325,000). [ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/ORD/Ecoregions/nh/new_eng_front.pdf; last accessed 4 December 2017].

Grundel, R., R.P. Jean, K.J. Frohnapple, J. Gibbs, G.A. Glowacki, & N.B. Pavlovic. 2011. A survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Indiana dunes and Northwest Indiana, USA. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 84(2): 105–138.

Haines, A. 2011. New England Wild Flower Society’s Flora Novae Angliae: A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England. Yale University Press; New Haven, CT; xxxiv+973 pp.

Hall, H.G. & J.S. Ascher. 2010. Surveys of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in natural areas of Alachua County in north-central Florida. Florida Entomologist 93(4): 609–629.

Hall, H.G. & J. S. Ascher. 2011. Surveys of wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in organic farms of Alachua County in north-central Florida. Florida Entomologist 94(3): 539–552.

Hansen, J., M. Sato, P. Hearty, R. Ruedy, M. Kelley, V. Masson-Delmotte, G. Russell, G. Tselioudis, J. Cao, E. Rignot, I. Velicogna, B. Tormey, B. Donovan, E. Kandiano, K. von Schuckmann, P. Kharecha, A.N. Legrande, M. Bauer, & K.-W. Lo. 2016. Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2° C global warming is highly dangerous. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 16(6): 3761–3812.

Hicks, C.H. 1926. Nesting habits and parasites of certain bees of Boulder County, Colorado. The University of Colorado Studies 26: 217–252.

Hillman, R. E., N.W. Davis & J. Wennemer. 1977. Abundance, diversity, and stability in shore-zone fish communities in an area of Long Island Sound affected by the thermal discharge

of a nuclear power station. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 5(3): 355–381.

Hoebeke, E.R. & A.G. Wheeler. 1999. Anthidium oblongatum (Illiger): An Old World bee (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) new to North America, and new North American records for another adventive species, Anthidium manicatum (L.). The University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Special Publication 24: 21–24.

Hurd, P.D., Jr. 1979. Superfamily Apoidea. In Krombein, K.V., P.D. Hurd, Jr., D.R. Smith, & B.D. Burks (Eds.), Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Volume 2. Apocrita (Aculeata). Smithsonian Institution Press; Washington, DC; pp. 1741-2209.

Hurd, P.D., E.G. Linsley, & T.W. Whitaker. 1971. Squash and Gourd Bees (Peponapis, Xenoglossa) and the Origin of the Cultivated Cucurbita. Evolution 25(1): 218–234.

Jakobsson A., B. Padrón, & A. Traveset. 2007. Pollen transfer from invasive Carpobrotus spp. to natives – A study of pollinator behaviour and reproduction success. Biological Conservation 141(1): 136–145.

Klein, A.M., B.E. Vaissiere, J.H. Cane, I. Steffan-Dewenter, S.A. Cunningham, C. Kremen, and T. Tscharntke. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 274(1608): 303–313.

Knerer, G. 1969. Synergistic evolution of halictine nest architecture and social behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology 47(5): 925–930.

Knerer, G., & C.E. Atwood. 1962. An annotated check list of the non-parasitic Halictidae (Hymenoptera) of Ontario. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario 92: 160–176.

Knerer, G., & C.E. Atwood. 1966. Nest architecture as an aid in halictine taxonomy (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). The Canadian Entomologist 98(12): 1337–1339.

Kollmann, J., L. Frederiksen, P. Vestergaard, & H. H. Bruun. 2007. Limiting factors for seedling emergence and establishment of the invasive non-native Rosa rugosa in a coastal dune system. Biological Invasions 9(1): 31–42.

Kraemer, M.E., F.D. Favi, & C.E. Niedziela. 2014. Nesting and pollen preference of Osmia lignaria lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Virginia and North Carolina Orchards. Environmental Entomology 43(4): 932–941.

Krombein, K.V. 1967. Trap-nesting Wasps and Bees: Life Histories, Nests, and Associates. Smithsonian Institution Press; Washington, D.C., USA; 570 pp.

Kulhanek, K., N. Steinhauer, K. Rennich, D. M. Caron, R.R. Sagili, J.S. Pettis, J.D. Ellis, M.E. Wilson, J.T. Wilkes, D.R. Tarpy, R. Rose, K. Lee, J. Rangel, & D. vanEngelsdorp. 2017. A national survey of managed honey bee 2015-2016 annual colony losses in the USA. Journal of Apicultural Research 56(4): 328–340.

LaBerge, W. E. 1969. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part II. Plastandrena, Aporandrena, Charitandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 95(1): 1–47.

LaBerge, W.E. 1973. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part VI. Subgenus Trachandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 99 (3): 235–371.

LaBerge, W.E. 1980. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part X. Subgenus Andrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 106(4): 395–525.

LaBerge, W.E. 1985. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part XI. Minor Subgenera and Subgeneric Key. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 111(4): 441–567.

LaBerge, W.E. 1989. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the western hemisphere. Part XIII. Subgenera Simandrena and Taeniandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 115(1): 1–56.

LaBerge, W.E., & J.K. Bouseman. 1970. A revision of the bees of the genus Andrena of the Western Hemisphere. Part III. Tylandrena. Transactions of the American Entomological Society 96(4): 543–605.

Lerman, S.B., & J. Milam. 2016. Bee fauna and floral abundance within lawn-dominated suburban yards in Springfield, MA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 109(5): 713–723.

Losey, J.E., & M. Vaughan. 2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by

insects. BioScience 56(4): 311–323.

Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Blackwell Science Ltd.; Oxford, UK; viii+256 pp.

Maier, C. T. 2005. First records of alien insects in Connecticut (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae; Coleoptera: Buprestidae, Chrysomelidae; Diptera: Rhagionidae, Tephritidae; Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107(4): 947–959.

Maier, C.T. 2009. New distributional records of three alien species of Megachilidae (Hymenoptera) from Connecticut and nearby states. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 111(4): 775–784.

Malloch, J. R. 1918. Occurrence of a European solitary bee (Andrena wilkella Kirby) in the

eastern United States. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 31:

–64.

Mathewson, J.A. 1968. Nest construction and life history of the eastern cucurbit bee, Peponapis pruinosa (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41(2): 255–261.

Matteson, K.C., J.S. Ascher, & G.A. Langellotto. 2008. Bee richness and abundance in New York City urban gardens. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101(1): 140–150.

McGinley, R. J. 1986. Studies of Halictinae (Apoidea: Halictidae), I: Revision of New World Lasioglossum Curtis. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 429: 1–294.

Medler, J.T. 1965. A note on Megachile mendica Cresson in trap-nests in Wisconsin. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 67(2): 113–116.

Medler, J.T. 1967. Biology of Osmia in trap nests in Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 60(2): 338–344.

Michener, C.D. 1974. The Social Behavior of the Bees. Belkap Press; Cambridge, MA; 404 pp.

Michener, C.D. 1978. The parasitic groups of Halictidae. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 51: 291–339.

Michener, C. D. 2007. The Bees of the World. [2nd Edition]. The John Hopkins University Press; Baltimore, MD; xvi+[i]+953 pp., +20 pls.

Michener, C.D., & F.D. Bennett. 1977. Geographical variation in nesting biology and social organization of Halictus ligatus. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 51: 233–260.

Miliczsky, E. R. 1988. Observations of the bionomics of the bee Andrena (Tylandrena) erthrogaster Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae) with notes on A. (Micrandrena) personata Robertson and A. (Holandrena) c. cressonii Robertson. Illinois Natural History Survey, Biological Notes 130: 1–18.

Miliczky, E.R., & E.A. Osgood. 1995. Bionomics of Andrena (Melandrena) vicina Smith in Maine and Washington, with new parasite records for A. (M.) regularis Malloch and a Review of Melandrena Biology. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 68(1): 51–66.

Mitchell, T.B. 1960. Bees of the Eastern United States. [Volume 1]. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. [Technical Bulletin Number 141]; Raleigh, NC; 538 pp.

Mitchell, T. B. 1962. Bees of the Eastern United State., [Volume 2]. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station. [Technical Bulletin 152]; Raleigh, NC; 557 pp.

Morales, C.L., & A. Traveset. 2009. A meta-analysis of impacts of alien vs. native plants on pollinator visitation and reproductive success of co-flowering native plants. Ecology Letters: 12: 716–728.

Mueller, U.G. 1996. Life history and social evolution of the primitively eusocial bee Augochlorella striata (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 69(4): 116–138.

National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council. 2007. Status of Pollinators in North America. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

Nicholls, R. J., & A. Cazenave. 2010. Sea-level rise and its impact on coastal zones. Science 328(5985): 1517-1520.

Nielsen, A., I. Steffan-Dewenter, C. Westphal, O. Messinger, S. Potts, S. Roberts, J. Settele, H. Szentgyörgyi, B. Vaissière, M. Vaitis, M. Woyciechowski, I. Bazos, J. Biesmeijer, R. Bommarco, W. Kunin, T. Tscheulin, E. Lamborn, & T. Petanidou. 2011. Assessing bee species richness in two Mediterranean communities: importance of habitat type and sampling techniques. Ecological Research 26(5): 969–983.

Ollerton, J., R. Winfree, & S. Tarrant. 2011. How many flowering plants are pollinated by animals? Oikos 120(3): 321–326.

Ordway, E. 1966. The bionomics of Augochlorella striata and A. persimilis in eastern Kansas. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 39(2): 270–313.

Orr R.L. 2010. Preliminary list of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Assateague Island National Seashore, Worcester County, Maryland. Maryland Entomologist 5(2): 41–50.

Osgood, E. A. 1989. Biology of Andrena crataegi Robertson (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae), a communally nesting bee. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 97(1): 56–64.

Packer, L. 1990. Solitary and eusocial nests in a population of Augochlorella striata (Provancher) (Hymenoptera; Halictidae) at the northern edge of its range. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27(5): 339–344.

Rau, P. 1922. Ecological and behavior notes on Missouri insects. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis 24(7): 1–71.

Rau, P. 1930. The nesting habits of the twig-dwelling bee, Prosopis modestus Say. Psyche 37(2): 173–175.

Rau, P. 1937. The life-history of Osmia lignaria and O. cordata, with notes on O. conjunta. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 30(2): 324–343.

Rehan, S.M. & M.H. Richards. 2010. Nesting biology and subsociality in Ceratina calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae). The Canadian Entomologist 142: 65–74.

Rehan, S.M., & C.S. Sheffield. 2011. Morphological and molecular delineation of a new species in the Ceratina dupla species-group (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae) of eastern North America. Zootaxa 2873: 35–50.

Richards, M.H. & L. Packer. 1995. Annual variation in survival and reproduction of the primitively eusocial sweat bee Halictus ligatus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 73: 933–941.

Richards, M.H., J.L. Vickruck, & S.M. Rehan. 2010. Colony social organisation of Halictus confusus in Southern Ontario, with comments on sociality in the subgenus H. (Seladonia). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 19(1):144–158.

Roberts, R.B. 1969. Biology of the bee genus Agapostemon (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). The University of Kansas Science Bulletin 48: 689–719.

Roulston, T., S.A. Smith, & A.L. Brewster. 2007. A comparison of pan trap and intensive net sampling techniques for documenting a bee (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) fauna. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 80(2): 179–181.

Rubinoff, D., S. Cameron, and K. Will. 2006. A genomic perspective on the shortcomings of mitochondrial DNA for “barcoding” identification. Journal of Heredity 97(6): 581–594.

Rutgers-Kelly, A. 2003. The bees of Niagara: a test of the intermediate disturbance hypothesis.

M.Sc. thesis, Brock University; St. Catharines, Ontario; 252 pp.

Rykken, J.J., & B.D. Farrell. 2013. Boston Harbor Islands all taxa biodiversity inventory: Discovering the “microwilderness” of an urban island park. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/BOHA/NRTR—2013/746. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

[https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2195282; last accessed 22 December 2017].

Scarpulla, E. 2013. A year long survey of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of a human-made habitat created from dredged material: Hart-Miller Island, Chesapeake Bay, Baltimore County, Maryland. Maryland Entomologist 6(1): 56–84.

Schrader, M.N. & W.E. LaBerge. 1978. The nest biology of the bees Andrena (Melandrena) regularis Malloch and A. (Melandrena) carlini Cockerell. Illinois Natural History Survey Biological Notes 108: 1–24.

Schuh, R. T., S. Hewson-Smith, and J. S. Ascher. 2010. Specimen databases: a case study in entomology using web-based software. American Entomologist 56(4): 206–216.

Scott, V. 1993. Use of communal nest entrances by Osmia simillima (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae. The Great Lakes Entomologist 26(1): 79–80.

Scott, V.L., J.S. Ascher, T. Griswold, & C.R. Nufio. 2011. The Bees of Colorado (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Natural History Inventory of Colorado 23: 1–100.

Scott, Z., H.S. Ginsberg, & S.R. Alm. 2016. Native bee diversity and pollen foraging specificity in cultivated highbush blueberry (Ericaceae: Vaccinium corymbosum) in Rhode Island. Environmental Entomology 45(6): 1432–1438.

Shapiro, L. & S. Droege. 2010. Bees of the Cove Point Liquefied Natural Gas Site and Vicinity, Calvert County, Maryland. [http://www.covepoint-trust.org/reports/Bees.pdf; last accessed 5 February 2018].

Sheffield, C.S., P.D.N. Hebert, P.G. Kevan, & L. Packer. 2009. DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies. Molecular Ecology Resources 9(1):196–207.

Smith, B.A., R.L. Brown, W. Laberge, & T. Griswold. 2012. A faunistic survey of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) in the Black Belt Prairie of Mississippi. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 85(1): 32–47.

Snedecor, G.W. & W.G. Cochran. 1980. Statistical Methods. [7th Edition]. The Iowa State University Press; Ames, IA; xvi+507 pp.

Snelling, R. R. 1966. Studies on North American bees of the genus Hylaeus 1. Distribution of the western species of the subgenus Prosopis with descriptions of new forms (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Los Angeles County Museum Contributions in Science 98: 1–18.

Stage, G.I. 2009. Survey of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Penikese and Cuttyhunk Islands. Summary of field work, results, and preliminary conclusions. Final Report to Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program.

Stephen, W.P. 1966. Andrena (Cryptandrena) viburnella. I. Bionomics. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 39(1): 42–51.

Stout, J.C. & C.L. Morales. 2009. Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bees. Apidologie 40(3): 388–409.

Szabo, N.D., S.R. Colla, D.L. Wagner, L.F. Gall, & J.T. Kerr. 2012. Do pathogen spillover, pesticide use, or habitat loss explain recent North American bumblebee declines? Conservation Letters 5(3): 232–239.

Tonietto, R., J. Fant, J.S. Ascher, K. Ellis, & D.Larkin. 2011. A comparison of bee communities of Chicago green roofs, parks and prairies. Landscape and Urban Planning 103: 102–108.

Torchio, P.F. 1984. The nesting biology of Hylaeus bisinuatus Forster and development of its immature forms (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 57(2): 276–297.

Tucker, E.M., & S.M. Rehan. 2017. High elevation refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) conservation and wild bees of the White Mountain National Forest. Journal of Insect Science 17(1): 1–10.

Tuell, J.K., J.S. Ascher, & R. Isaacs. 2009. Wild Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) of the Michigan highbush blueberry agroecosystem. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 102(2): 275–287.

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2002. Plant Fact Sheet, Rugosa Rose, Rosa rugosa Thunb. [https://plants.usda.gov/factsheet/pdf/fs_roru.pdf; last accessed 4 December 2017].

Vickruck, J. 2010. The nesting biology of Ceratina (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Niagara Region: New species, nest selection and parasitism. MS thesis, Brock University; St. Catharines, Ontario; 130 pp.

Vickruck, J.L., & M.H. Richards. 2012. Niche partitioning based on nest site selection in the small carpenter bees Ceratina mikmaqi and C. calcarata. Animal Behaviour 83(4): 1083–1089.

Vickruck, J.L., S.M. Rehan, C.S. Sheffield, & M.H. Richards. 2011. Nesting biology and DNA barcode analysis of Ceratina dupla and C. mikmaqi, and comparisons with C. calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae). The Canadian Entomologist 143(3): 254–262.

Viereck, H.L. 1916. The Hymenoptera or Wasp-like Insects of Connecticut. Connecticut State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin, No. 22, Hartford, Connecticut.

Wagner, D. L., & J. S. Ascher. 2008. Rediscovery of Epeoloides pilosula (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in New England. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(2): 81–83.

Wagner, D.L., J.S. Ascher, & N.K. Bricker. 2014. A transmission right-of-way as habitat for wild bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) in Connecticut. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 107(6): 1110–1120.

Westrich, P. 1989. Die Wildbienen Baden-Württembergs. 2 vol., Eugen Ulmer; Stuttgart, Germany; 972 pp.

Williams, P., R. Thorp, L. Richardson, & S. Colla. 2014. An Identification Guide Bumble Bees of North America. Princeton University Press; Princeton, New Jersey, USA; 208 pp.

Wilson, J.S., T. Griswold, & O.J. Messinger. 2008. Sampling bee communities (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in a desert landscape: Are pan traps sufficient? Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 81(3): 288–300.

Wolf, A.T. & J.S. Ascher. 2008. Bees of Wisconsin (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Great Lakes Entomologist 41(1/2): 129–168.

Wood, T.J., & S.P.M. Roberts. 2017. An assessment of historical and contemporary diet breadth in polylectic Andrena bee species. Biological Conservation 215: 72–80.

Zarrillo, T.A., J.S. Ascher, J. Gibbs, & K.A. Stoner. 2016. New and noteworthy records of bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila) for Connecticut. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 89(2): 138–157.

Zayed, A., S.A. Constantin, & L. Packer. 2007. Successful biological invasion despite a severe genetic load. PLoS ONE 2(9), e868.https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000868

Downloads

Published

08-07-2019