Multiscale Characterization of the Caney Shale — An Emerging Play in Oklahoma

Authors

  • Yulun Wang Oklahoma State University
  • Guofan Luo
  • Mercy Achang
  • Julie Cains
  • Conn Wethington
  • Allan Katende
  • G. Michael Grammer
  • Jim Puckette
  • Jack Pashin
  • Marc Castagna
  • Han Chan
  • George E. King
  • Mileva Radonjic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17161/mg.v2i.15911

Keywords:

Caney Shale

Abstract

From a hydrocarbon perspective, the Caney Shale has historically been evaluated as a sealing unit, which resulted in limited studies characterizing the rock properties of the Caney Shale and its suitability for hydraulic fracturing. The objective of our research is to help bridge the current knowledge gap through the integration of multiscale laboratory techniques and to characterize the macro- and microscale rock properties of the Caney Shale. We employed an integrated approach for the characterization of the Caney using 200 ft (61 m) of Caney core from a target well in southern Oklahoma. Core observation and petrographic analysis of thin sections were combined to characterize the general rock types and associated fabrics and textures. Mineralogical composition, pore system architecture, and rock fabric were analyzed using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM. In addition, rebound hardness and indentation testing were carried out to determine rock hardness (brittleness) and elasticity, respectively. With the integrated multiscale characterization, three mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rock types were identified — mudstone, calcareous siltstone, and silty carbonate — likely representing a spectrum of deposition from low to relatively high energy environments in the distal portions of a ramp system. Silty carbonate contains mostly interparticle pores. The calcareous siltstones and silty mudstones contain a combination of organic matter pores and interparticle pores. Each of the rock types shows unique mineralogical compositions based on XRD. The mudstone lithofacies has the highest clay content and the least carbonate content. Calcareous siltstones show moderate carbonate and clay content. Silty carbonate indicates the highest carbonate content with the least clay content. In an order of mudstone, calcareous siltstone, and silty carbonate, rebound hardness and Young’s modulus show an increasing trend. As a result of rock-fluid interactions, there are potential scaling reactions during completion and production that could ultimately affect permeability and production rates. Overall, the proposed multiscale integration approach is critical for the geologic characterization of most rocks. However, in shale reservoirs dominated by microporosity and microstructure where engineered fractures are expected to provide permeability at a reservoir scale, successful integration is essential. An optimized, integrated geological characterization of the Caney Shale that is well aligned with the engineering designs in drilling, completing, and producing wellbores will ultimately lead to optimal production while providing safe and environmentally responsible operations.

References

Al Duhailan, M. A., Sonnenberg, S. A., and Longman, M., 2015, Analyzing beef fractures: Genesis and relationship with organic-rich shale facies: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 20–22 July.

Alramahi, B., and Sundberg, M., 2012, Proppant embedment and conductivity of hydraulic fractures in shales: Proceedings, 46th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, 24–27 June.

Andrews, R. D., 2007, Stratigraphy, production, and reservoir characteristics of the Caney Shale in southern Oklahoma: Shale Shaker, v. 58, p. 9–25

Awejori, G., and Radonjic, M., 2021, Review of geochemical and geo-mechanical impact of formation clay-fluid interactions: Focus on hydraulic fracturing: IntechOpen, p. 1–23.

Awejori, G. A., Luo, G., Grider, C., Katende, A., Radonjic, M., Doughty, C., Spycher, N., Paronish, T., O’Connell, L., and Rihn, A., 2021, Fracturing fluid-induced mineralogy changes and impact on elastic properties for the Caney Shale, Oklahoma: American Rock Mechanics Association, June 2021.

Bai, B., Elgmati, M., Zhang, H., and Wei, M., 2013, Rock characterization of Fayetteville Shale gas plays: Fuel, v.105, p. 645–652.

Benge, M., Lu, Y., Jones, J., Bunger, A. P., Haecker, A., Rihn, A., Crandall, D., Luo, G., and Radonjic, M., 2021a, Mechanical properties of nominally ductile and brittle zones within the Caney Shale Formation: Paper presented in the Proceedings of the 55th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, The Woodlands, Houston, Texas, 20–23 June.

Benge, M., Lu, Y., Jones, J., Katende, A., Rutqvist, J., Doughty, C., Crandall, D., Haecker, A., King, G., Renk, J., Radonjic, M., and Bunger, A. P., 2021b, Connecting geomechanical properties with potential for proppant embedment and production decline for the emerging Caney Shale, Oklahoma: Paper presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC), Houston, Texas, 26–28 July.

Briggs, K., 2014, The influence of vertical location on hydraulic fracture conductivity in the Fayetteville Shale: M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 83 p.

Cadotte, R., Whitsett, A., Sorrell, M., and Hunter, B., 2017, Modern completion optimization in the Haynesville Shale: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 9–11 October.

Cardott, B. J., 2017, Oklahoma shale resource plays: Oklahoma Geology Notes, v. 76, no. 2, p. 21–30.

Chen, Y., Brantley, S. L., and Ilton, E. S., 2000, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurement of the temperature dependence of leaching of cations from the albite surface: Chemical Geology, v. 163, no. 1-4, p. 115–128.

Deville, J. P., Fritz, B., and Jarrett, M., 2011, Development of water-based drilling fluids customized for shale reservoirs: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Drilling & Completion, v. 26, no. 04, p. 484–491.

Du, H., and Radonjic, M., 2019, The mechanism of fracture initiation in shale rocks: Pottsville cap-rock-shale vs. Marcellus unconventional reservoir-shale: 53rd American Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, New York City, 23–26 June.

Du, H., Radonjic, M., and Chen, Y., 2020, Microstructure and micro-geomechanics evaluation of Pottsville and Marcellus shales: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, v. 195, 107876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2020.107876

Eberli, G. P., Weger, R. J., Tenaglia, M., Rueda, L., Rodriguez, L., Zeller, M., McNeill, D., Murray, S., and Swart, P. K., 2017, The unconventional play in the Neuquén basin, Argentina — Insights from the outcrop for the subsurface: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC), Austin, Texas, 24–26 July.

Evans, M., 2016, Unconventional hydrocarbons and the US technology revolution; in R. Grafton, I. Cronshaw, and M. Moore, Eds., Risks, Rewards and Regulation of Unconventional Gas: A Global Perspective: Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 59–91. DOI:10.1017/9781316341209.006

Fishman, N. S., Ellis, G. S., Boehlke, A. R., Paxton, S. T., and Egenhoff, S. O., 2013, Gas storage in the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Woodford Shale, Arbuckle Mountains, Oklahoma: How much of a role do chert beds play? in J. Chatellier and D. M. Jarvie, eds., Critical Assessment of Shale Resource Plays: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Memoir, v. 103, p. 81–107.

Fortson, L., 2012, Geochemical and spatial investigation of uranium in the Marcellus Shale: M.S. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo, 61 p.

Gale, J. F., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E., Eichhubl, P., and Fall, A., 2014, Natural fractures in shale: A review and new observations: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 98, p. 2,165–2,216.

Grammer, G. M., Gregg, J. M., Puckette, J., Jaiswal, P., Mazzullo, S. J., Pranter, M. J., and Goldstein, R. H., eds., 2019, Mississippian Reservoirs of the Midcontinent: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Memoir, v. 122, 560 p.

Houseknecht, D. W., Coleman, Jr., J. L., Milici, R. C., Garrity, C. P., Rouse, W. A., Fulk, B. R., Paxton, S. T., Abbott, M. M., Mars, J. L., Cook, T. A., and Schenk, C. J., 2010, Assessment of undiscovered natural gas resources of the Arkoma basin province and geologically related areas: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010-3043, 4 p.

Jansen, T. A., 2014, The effect of rock properties on hydraulic fracture conductivity in the Eagle Ford and Fayetteville Shales: M.S. thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, 114 p.

Jew, A. D., Dustin, M. K., Harrison, A. L., Joe-Wong, C. M., Thomas, D. L., Maher, K., Brown Jr., G. E., and Bargar, J. R., 2017, Impact of organics and carbonates on the oxidation and precipitation of iron during hydraulic fracturing of shale: Energy & Fuels, v. 31, no. 4, p. 3,643–3,658. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03220

Kamal, M. S., Hussein, I., Mahmoud, M., Sultan, A. S., and Saad, M. A., 2018, Oilfield scale formation and chemical removal: A review: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, v. 171, p. 127–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2018.07.037

Kamann, P. J., 2006, Surface-to-subsurface correlation and lithostratigraphic framework of the Caney Shale (including the “Mayes” Formation) in Atoka, Coal, Hughes, Johnston, Pittsburg, and Pontotoc counties, Oklahoma: M.S. thesis, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, 259 p.

Kan, A., and Tomson, M., 2012, Scale prediction for oil and gas production: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Journal, v. 17, no. 02, p. 362–378. https://doi.org/10.2118/132237-PA

Katende, A., O’Connell, L., Rich, A., Rutqvist, J., and Radonjic, M., 2021, A comprehensive review of proppant embedment in shale reservoirs: Experimentation, modeling and future prospects: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, in press, 29 p.

King, G. E., 2010, Thirty years of gas shale fracturing: What have we learned? Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September.

Ko, L. T., Loucks, R. G., Zhang, T., Ruppel, S. C., and Shao, D., 2016, Pore and pore network evolution of upper Cretaceous Boquillas (Eagle Ford–equivalent) mudrocks: Results from gold tube pyrolysis experiments: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 100, no. 11, p. 1,693–1,722.

Kompatscher, M., 2004, Equotip — rebound hardness testing after D. Leeb: Proceedings, Conference on Hardness Measurements Theory and Application in Laboratories and Industries, 1, 1–12.

Kuila, U., 2013, Measurement and interpretation of porosity and pore-size distribution in mudrocks: The hole story of shales: Ph.D. dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, 238 p.

Kvale, E. P., Bowie, C. M., Flenthrope, C., Mace, C., Parrish, J. M., Price, B., Anderson, S., and DiMichele, W. A., 2020, Facies variability within a mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sea-floor fan (upper Wolfcamp Formation, Permian, Delaware basin, New Mexico): American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 104, p. 525–563.

Leeb, D., 1979, Dynamic hardness testing of metallic materials: NDT International, v. 12, no. 6, p. 274–278.

Li, Q., Jew, A. D., Kiss, A. M., Kohli, A., Alalli, A., Kovscek, A. R., Zoback, M. D., Cercone, D., Maher, K., Brown Jr., G. E., and Bargar, J. R., 2018, Imaging pyrite oxidation and barite precipitation in gas and oil shales: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC), Houston, Texas, 23–25 July.

Lohr, C. D., Valentine, B. J., Hackley, P. C., and Dulong, F. T., 2020, Characterization of the unconventional Tuscaloosa marine shale reservoir in southwestern Mississippi, USA: Insights from optical and SEM petrography: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v. 121, 104580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2020.104580

Loucks, R. G., Reed, R. M., Ruppel, S. C., and Hammes, U., 2012, Spectrum of pore types and networks in mudrocks and a descriptive classification for matrix-related mudrock pores: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 96, no. 6, p. 1,071–1,098. https://doi.org/10.1306/08171111061

Loucks, R. G., and Ruppel, S. C., 2007, Mississippian Barnett Shale: Lithofacies and depositional setting of a deep-water shale-gas succession in the Fort Worth basin, Texas: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 91, no. 4, p. 579–601. https://doi.org/10.1306/11020606059

Medina, C. R., Mastalerz, M., Lahann, R. W., and Rupp, J. A., 2020, A novel multi-technique approach used in the petrophysical characterization of the Maquoketa Group (Ordovician) in the southeastern portion of the Illinois basin: Implications for seal efficiency for the geologic sequestration of CO2: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, v. 93, p. 102,883.

Mullen, J., Lowry, J. C., and Nwabuoku, K. C., 2010, Lessons learned developing the Eagle Ford Shale: Tight Gas Completions Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 2–3 November.

Northcutt, R. A., and Campbell, J. A., 1996, Geologic provinces of Oklahoma: Transactions of the 1995 AAPG Mid-Continent Section Meeting, p. 128–134.

Olabode, A., Radonjic, M., 2014, Characterization of shale caprock nanopores in geologic CO2 containment: Journal of Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, v. 20, no. 2. https://doi.org/10.2113/gseegeosci.20.4.361

Olajire, A. A., 2015, A review of oilfield scale management technology for oil and gas production: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, v. 135, p. 723–737. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2015.09.011

Pilewski, J., Sharma, S., Agrawal, V., Hakala, J. A., and Stuckman, M. Y., 2019, Effect of maturity and mineralogy on fluid-rock reactions in the Marcellus Shale: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, v. 21, no. 5, p. 845–855. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8EM00452H

Pope, C., Peters, B., Benton, T., and Palisch, T., 2009, Haynesville Shale — One operator’s approach to well completions in this evolving play: Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October.

Radonjic, M., Luo, G., Wang, Y., Achang, M., Cains, J., Katende, A., Puckette, J., Grammer, G. M., and King, G. E., 2020, Integrated microstructural characterization of Caney Shale, OK: Unconventional Resources Technology Conference (URTeC), Austin, Texas, 20–22 July.

Saif, T., Lin, Q., Butcher, A. R., Bijeljic, B., and Blunt, M. J., 2017, Multi-scale multi-dimensional microstructure imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using X-ray micro-tomography, automated ultra-high resolution SEM, MAPS mineralogy and FIB-SEM: Applied Energy, v. 202, p. 628–647.

Sarg, J. F., 2012, The Bakken — An unconventional petroleum and reservoir system: Final scientific/technical report, DOE Award No.: DE-NT0005672, United States Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 65 p.

Schad, S. T., 2004, Hydrocarbon potential of the Caney Shale in southeastern Oklahoma: M.S. thesis, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 576 p.

Slatt, R. M., and O’Brien, N. R., 2011, Pore types in the Barnett and Woodford gas shales: Contribution to understanding gas storage and migration pathways in fine-grained rocks: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Bulletin, v. 95, no. 12, p. 2,017–2,030. https://doi.org/10.1306/03301110145

Slatt, R. M., Philp, P. R., Abousleiman, Y., Singh, P., Perez, R., Portas, R., Marfurt, K. J., Madrid-Arroyo, S., O’Brien, N., Eslinger, E., and Baruch, E. T., 2012, Pore-to-regional-scale integrated characterization workflow for unconventional gas shales; in J. A. Breyer, ed., Shale Reservoirs—Giant Resources for the 21st Century: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Memoir 97, p. 127–150.

Sone, H., and Zoback, M. D., 2013, Mechanical properties of shale-gas reservoir rocks—Part 2: Ductile creep, brittle strength, and their relation to the elastic modulus: Geophysics, v. 78, no. 5, p. D393–D402. https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2013-0051.1

Srinivasan, K., Ajisafe, F., Alimahomed, F., Panjaitan, M., Makarychev-Mikhailov, S., and Mackay, B., 2018, Is there anything called too much proppant? Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Liquids-Rich Basins Conference-North America, Midland, Texas, 5–6 September.

Staub, P., 2014, Clay mineralogy of the Marcellus and Utica Shales: Implications for fluid development via cation exchange: M.S. thesis, State University of New York at Buffalo.

Thompson, J., Fan, L., and Grant, D., 2011, An overview of horizontal-well completions in the Haynesville Shale: Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, v. 50, no. 06, p. 22–35. https://doi.org/10.2118/136875-PA

Vanden Berg, B., and Grammer, G. M., 2016, 2-D pore architecture characterization of a carbonate mudrock reservor: Insights from the Mid-Continent “Mississippi Lime”; in T. Olson, ed., Imaging Unconventional Reservoir Pore Systems: AAPG Memoir, v. 112, p. 185–232. DOI:10.1306/13592022M1123698

Vanden Berg, B., LeBlanc, S., and Grammer, G. M., 2019, Integrated reservoir characterization to provide insight into porosity and permeability in a mixed carbonate–siliciclastic reservoir; in G. M. Grammer, J. M. Gregg, J. Puckette, P. Jaiswal, S. J. Mazzullo, M. J. Pranter, and R. H. Goldstein, eds., Mississippian Reservoirs of the Midcontinent: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Memoir, v. 122, p. 227–270. https://doi.org/10.1306/13632150M1163698

Wang, Y., Cains, J., Grammer, G. M., Pashin, J. C., and Puckette, J., 2021, Facies architecture and reservoir characteristics of the Caney Shale, Ardmore basin, Southern Oklahoma, USA: 2021 AAPG Annual Conference and Exhibition abstract, accepted for poster presentation.

Wang, Y., and Grammer, G. M., 2018, Rebound hardness: Relationship to facies, mineralogy, natural fractures, reservoir quality, and rock mechanical properties, the “Mississippian Limestone” play, north-central Oklahoma, USA: 2018 American Rock Mechanics Association (ARMA) Symposium, Seattle, Washington, 17–20.

Wang, Y., Thompson, T., and Grammer, G. M., 2019, Fracture characterization and prediction in unconventional reservoirs of the “Mississippian Limestone,” north-central Oklahoma, USA; in G. M. Grammer, J. M. Gregg, J. Puckette, P. Jaiswal, S. J. Mazzullo, M. J. Pranter, and R. H. Goldstein, eds., Mississippian Reservoirs of the Midcontinent: American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) Memoir, v. 122, p. 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1306/13632151M1163789

Weber, J. L., 1994, A geochemical study of crude oils and possible source rocks in the Ouachita tectonic province and nearby areas, Southeast Oklahoma: Oklahoma Geological Survey, University of Oklahoma, special publication 94-2, 32 p.

Yan, C., Luo, G., and Ehlig-Economides, C. A., 2015, Systematic study of Bakken well performance over three well-completion-design eras: Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology, v. 54, no. 02, p. 95–106. https://doi.org/10.2118/171566-PA

Yao, Y., 2012, Linear elastic and cohesive fracture analysis to model hydraulic fracture in brittle and ductile rocks: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, v. 45, no. 3, p. 375–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-011-0211-0

Zhang, Y., and Farquhar, R., 2001, Laboratory determination of calcium carbonate scaling rates for oilfield wellbore environments: International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Aberdeen, United Kingdom, 30–31 January.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-28

How to Cite

Wang, Y., Luo, G., Achang, M., Cains, J., Wethington, C., Katende, A., Grammer, G. M., Puckette, J., Pashin, J., Castagna, M., Chan, H., King, G. E., & Radonjic, M. (2021). Multiscale Characterization of the Caney Shale — An Emerging Play in Oklahoma. Midcontinent Geoscience, 2, 33–53. https://doi.org/10.17161/mg.v2i.15911