Montessori and Non-Montessori Early Childhood Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusion and Access
Montessori and non-Montessori general education early childhood teachers were surveyed about their attitudes towards including children with disabilities and providing access in their classrooms. Both groups reported similar and positive supports for inclusion within their schools. Montessori teachers reported having less knowledge about inclusion and less special education professional development than their non-Montessori counterparts. Implications for professional development and teacher preparation are described.
American Montessori Society (AMS). (2014). AMS teacher education programs. Retrieved
American Montessori Society (AMS). (2014). Introduction to Montessori. Retrieved from
Burke, K., & Sutherland, C. (2004). Attitudes toward inclusion: Knowledge vs. experience.
Education, 125(2), 163-172.
Buysse, V., Skinner, D., & Grant, S. (2001). Toward a definition of quality inclusion:
Perspectives of parents and practitioners. Journal of Early Intervention, 24(2), 146-161.
Cossentino, J. (2010). Following all the children: Early intervention and Montessori. Montessori
Life, 1(8), 1-8.
DEC / NAEYC. (2009). Early childhood inclusion: A joint position statement of the Division for
Early Childhood (DEC) and the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.
Epstein, A. (1997). How teachers accommodate for young children with special needs.
Montessori Life, 9(3), 32-34.
Epstein, A. (1998). "The behavior part is the hardest": Montessori teachers and young children
with challenging behaviors. Montessori Life, 10(4), 24-25.
Epstein, A. M. (1996; 1996). Teacher accommodation for individual differences in integrated
Montessori early childhood classrooms. (University of Maryland College Park, University of Maryland College Park). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses,
Hurley, J. J., & Horn, E. M. (2010). Family and professional priorities for inclusive early
childhood settings. Journal of Early Intervention, 32, 335-350.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, PL 108-446, 20 U.S.C. §§
et seq. (2004).
Kahn, B. (2009). 2009 NAMTA baseline special education survey. The North American
Montessori Teachers' Association Journal, 34(2), 181-196.
Kirk, S., Gallagher, J., J., Coleman, M. R., & Anastasiow, N. J. (2011). Educating exceptional
children (13th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Knoche, L., Peterson, C. A., Edwards, C. P., & Jeon, H. (2006). Child care for children with and
without disabilities: The provider, observer, and parent perspectives. Early Childhood
Research Quarterly, 21(1), 93-109.
Lillard, A., & Else-Quest, N. (2006). The early years: Evaluating Montessori education. Science,
McKenzie, G. K. &. Zascavage, V. (2012). Montessori instruction: A model for inclusion in
early childhood classrooms and beyond. Montessori Life, 24(1), 20-25.
Miller, L. B., Dyer, J. L., Stevenson, H., & White, S. H. (1975). Four preschool programs: Their
dimensions and effects. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development,
National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). (2012). Guidance on
NAEYC accreditation criteria: All criteria document. Retrieved from
National Professional Development Center on Inclusion. (2011). Research synthesis points on
practices that support inclusion. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.
Odom, S. L., Buysse, V., & Soukakou, E. (2011). Inclusion for young children with disabilities:
A quarter century of research perspectives. Journal of Early Intervention, 33(4), 344-356.
Pickering, J. S. (1992). Successful applications of Montessori methods with children at risk for
learning disabilities. Annals of Dyslexia, 42(1), 90-101.
Pickering, J. S. (2008). Montessorians helping children who learn differently. The North
American Montessori Teachers' Association Journal, 33(2), 77-99.
Sandall, S. R., Hemmeter, M. L., Smith, B. J., & McLean, M. E. (2005). DEC recommended
practices: A comprehensive guide for practical applications in early intervention/ early childhood special education. Missoula, MT: Division for Early Childhood.
Sandall, S. R., & Schwartz, I. S. (2008). Building blocks for teaching preschoolers with special
needs (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul H Brookes Pub Co.
Schwartz, I. S., Sandall, S. R., Odom, S. L., Horn, E., & Beckman, P., J. (2002). "I know it when
I see it": In search of a common definition of inclusion. In S. Odom (Ed.), Widening the
circle: Including children with disabilities in preschool programs (pp. 10-24). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Triandis, H. C. (1971). Attitude and attitude change. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office
of Special Education Programs. (2009). 28th annual report to congress on the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2006 vol. 1. ( No. Contract No. ED01CO0082/0008). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.
Wolfe, J. (2002). Learning from the past: Historical voices in early childhood education (2nd
ed., pp. 225-248). Mayerthorpe, Alberta, Canada: Piney Branch Press.
Copyright (c) 2015 Natalie Danner, Susan Fowler
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal. Authors can view article download statistics for published articles within their accounts.
Journal of Montessori Research
The following is an agreement between the Author (the “Corresponding Author”) acting on behalf of all authors of the work (“Authors”) and the Journal of Montessori Research (the “Journal”) regarding your article (the “Work”) that is being submitted for consideration.
Whereas the parties desire to promote effective scholarly communication that promotes local control of intellectual assets, the parties for valuable consideration agree as follows.
A. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR’S GRANT OF RIGHTS
After being accepted for publication, the Corresponding Author grants to the Journal, during the full term of copyright and any extensions or renewals of that term, the following:
1. An irrevocable non-exclusive right to reproduce, republish, transmit, sell, distribute, and otherwise use the Work in electronic and print editions of the Journal and in derivative works throughout the world, in all languages, and in all media now known or later developed.
2. An irrevocable non-exclusive right to create and store electronic archival copies of theWork, including the right to deposit the Work in open access digital repositories.
3. An irrevocable non-exclusive right to license others to reproduce, republish, transmit,and distribute the Work under the condition that the Authors are attributed. (Currently this is carried out by publishing the content under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial 4.0 license (CC BY-NC.)
4. Copyright in the Work remains with the Authors.
B. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR’S DUTIES
1. When distributing or re-publishing the Work, the Corresponding Author agrees to credit the Journal as the place of first publication.
2. The Corresponding Author agrees to inform the Journal of any changes in contact information.
C. CORRESPONDING AUTHOR’S WARRANTY
The Corresponding Author represents and warrants that the Work is the Authors’ original work and that it does not violate or infringe the law or the rights of any third party and, specifically, that the Work contains no matter that is defamatory or that infringes literary or proprietary rights, intellectual property rights, or any rights of privacy. The Corresponding Author also warrants that he or she has the full power to make this agreement, and if the Work was prepared jointly, the Corresponding Author agrees to inform the Authors of the terms of this Agreement and to obtain their written permission to sign on their behalf. The Corresponding Author agrees to hold the Journal harmless from any breach of the aforestated representations.
D. JOURNAL’S DUTIES
In consideration of the Author’s grant of rights, the Journal agrees to publish the Work, attributing the Work to the Authors.
E. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
This agreement reflects the entire understanding of the parties. This agreement may be amended only in writing by an addendum signed by the parties. Amendments are incorporated by reference to this agreement.
ACCEPTED AND AGREED BY THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR ON BEHALF OF ALL AUTHORS CONTRIBUTING TO THIS WORK