Comparative Analysis of Topical Versus Intravenous Administration of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid on Blood Management in Total Knee Arthroplasty

Authors

  • Benjamin L. Lancaster, M.D.
  • Alexander C. Wendling, M.D.
  • Tanner R. Poppe, BS
  • Rosalee Zackula, MA
  • Wade T. Massey, M.D.
  • Robert P. Cusick, M.D.
  • Paul C. Pappademos, M.D.
  • Bernard F. Hearon, M.D.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.17161/kjm.vol15.16036

Abstract

Introduction. Although the use of antifibrinolytics to reduce perioperative blood loss during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has shown unequivocal benefit in regard to blood conservation, the best route of administration remains in question. We tested the hypothesis that topical delivery of epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) was superior to intravenous (IV) administration in the setting of primary TKA.

Methods. This cross-sectional study included a 6-year retrospective chart review of TKA patients done by a single surgeon.  We compared post-operative hemoglobin levels and the incidence of blood transfusions among 3 patient subgroups:  no EACA, topical EACA, or IV EACA. Key outcome measures included postoperative hemoglobin, need for postoperative transfusion, and length of hospital stay.

Results. Of the 668 patients included in this study, 351 (52.5%) received IV EACA, 298 (44.6%) received topical EACA, and 19 (2.8%) received no EACA. For the 3-way comparisons, significant differences were observed for postoperative mean hemoglobin on day 1 (p < 0.001), day 2 (p < 0.001), and day 3 (p = 0.004) with consistently higher means for participants in the topical group. Eight patients required transfusion in the IV EACA group, but none were needed in the topical EACA group (p = 0.027). Length of stay was shortest for patients in the topical group with 66% staying hospitalized for two days, while 84% of the IV group remained hospitalized for three days (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The topical delivery of EACA is superior to IV administration with respect to blood conservation for patients undergoing primary TKA.

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Published

2022-03-15

How to Cite

Lancaster, B., Wendling, A., Poppe, T., Zackula, R., Massey, W., Cusick, R., Pappademos, P., & Hearon, B. (2022). Comparative Analysis of Topical Versus Intravenous Administration of Epsilon-Aminocaproic Acid on Blood Management in Total Knee Arthroplasty. Kansas Journal of Medicine, 15(1), 73–77. https://doi.org/10.17161/kjm.vol15.16036

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Section

Original Research