Longitudinal Analysis of Head Coach Turnover of Women’s NCAA D-I Teams
Keywords:gender, sport, coaching, women, barriers
The goal of the current study was to add to existing literature pertaining to occupational turnover of sport coaches through examination of longitudinal data of head coaches of women’s teams in select NCAA Division-I conferences. The current study is the first of its kind, providing longitudinal data to help prove or dispel common narratives about women coaches and illuminate patterns of gender and discrimination. The average rate of head coach turnover of NCAA Division I FBS women’s sport teams is lower than the average rate of employee turnover in the United States. Although encouraging for the entire coaching profession, discriminatory turnover patterns appear to be prevalent. Men in this sample were twice as likely as women to be coaching, regardless of the institutional reason for their departure. When men are fired, they have a greater likelihood to be rehired, especially at the same level and in the same role. Men are also afforded twice the opportunity, as they can in turn coach men, coed, or women, while women are relegated to coaching women or coed teams. Athletic departments and policy makers should use these insights to improve their coach hiring and retention practices
Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L.J. (2014). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal, national study thirty seven year update. Retrieved from http://www.acostacarpenter.org
Acosta, R. V., & Carpenter, L. J. (1988). Women in intercollegiate sport: A longitudinal study – eleven year update, 1977-1988. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED314381).
Boucher, C. J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2021). Athletics director’s misses & bull’s-eyes: Capitalizing on targets of opportunities to hire women coaches of women’s teams at select D-I institutions [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Department of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota.
Boucher, C., Silva-Breen, H., & LaVoi, N. M. (2021, July). Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A comprehensive report on NCAA Division-I institutions, 2020-21. Minneapolis: The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport.
Boushey, H., & Glynn, S. J. (2012, November). There are significant business costs to replacing employees. Retrieved from https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/16084443/CostofTurnover0815.pdf
Bruening, J.E., & Dixon, M.A. (2008). Situating work-family negotiations within a life course perspective: Insights on the gendered experiences of NCAA Division I head coaching mothers. Sex Roles, 58(1-2), 10–23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-007-9350-x
Cunningham, G. B., Ahn, N. Y., Anderson, A. J., & Dixon, M. A. (2019). Gender, coaching, and occupational turnover. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 27(2), 63-72.
Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2003). Occupational turnover intent among assistant coaches of women's teams: The role of organizational work experiences. Sex Roles, 49(3/4), 185-190. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024469132536
Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2007). Examining potential differences between men and women in the impact of treatment discrimination. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(12), 3010–3024. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00291.x
Cunningham, G. B., Sagas, M., & Ashley, F. B. (2003). Coaching self-efficacy, desire to become a head coach, and occupational turnover intent: Gender differences between NCAA assistant coaches of women's teams. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 34(2), 125–137.
Cunningham, G. B., & Sagas, M. (2004). Group diversity, occupational commitment, and occupational turnover intentions among NCAA division IA football coaching staff. Journal of Sport Management, 18, 236-254. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.18.3.236
Cunningham, G. B., Ahn, N. Y., Anderson, A. J., & Dixon, M. A. (2019). Gender, coaching, and occupational turnover. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 27(2), 63-72. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2018-0038
Darvin, L. (2020). Voluntary occupational turnover and the experiences of former intercollegiate women assistant coaches. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 116, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.103349
Dixon, M. A., & Bruening, J. E. (2007). Work--family conflict in coaching I: A top-down perspective. Journal Of Sport Management, 21(3), 377-406. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.21.3.377
Graham, J. A., & Dixon, M. A. (2014). Coaching fathers in conflict: A review of the tensions surrounding the work-family interface. Journal of Sport Management, 28(4), 447-456. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2013-0241
Graham, J. A., & Dixon, M. A. (2017). Work–family balance among coach-fathers: A qualitative examination of enrichment, conflict, and role management strategies. Journal of Sport Management, 31(3), 288-305. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2016-0117
Griffeth, R. W., Hom, P. W., & Gaertner, S. (2000). A meta-analysis of antecedents and correlates of employee turnover: Update, moderator tests, and research implications for the new millennium. Journal of Management, 26(3), 463-488. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920630002600305
Hollomon, N. (2016). Perceived barriers for ethnic minority females in collegiate athletics careers. Retrieved from https://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/2015RES_BarriersReport2015_20160506.pdf
Humphreys, B. R., Paul, R. J., & Weinbach, A. P. (2016). Performance expectations and the tenure of head coaches: Evidence from NCAA football. Research in Economics, 70, 482-492. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rie.2016.07.001
Kane, M. J. (2016). A socio-cultural examination of a lack of women coaches in sport leadership positions. In N. M. LaVoi (Ed.), Women in sports coaching (pp. 35-48). New York, NY: Routledge.
Kane, M. J., & LaVoi, N. M. (2018). An examination of intercollegiate athletic directors’ attributions regarding the underrepresentation of female coaches in women’s sports. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 26(1), 3-11. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2016-0031
Knoppers, A. (1989). Coaching: An equal opportunity occupation? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 60(3), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1989.10603969
Lapchick, R. E., Zimmerman, D., Eichenberger, D., Ewing, S., Forbes, A. J., Green, A., Johnson-Schmeltzer, B., Kiernan, A., Middleton, T., Miller, D., & Richardson, K. (2020). The 2020 DI football bowl series (FBS) college racial and gender report card: The lack of diversity within collegiate athletic leadership continues. Orlando: The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport.
Larsen, L. K., & Clayton, C. J. (2019). Career pathways to NCAA Division I women’s basketball head coach positions: Do race and gender matter? Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 27(2), 94-100. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2018-0068
LaVoi, N. M. (2016). A framework to understand experiences of women coaches around the globe: The ecological-intersectional model. In N. M. LaVoi (Ed.), Women in sports coaching (pp. 13-34). New York, NY: Routledge.
LaVoi, N.M., Boucher, C., & Silbert, S. (2019, July). Head coaches of women’s collegiate teams: A comprehensive report on NCAA Division-I institutions, 2018-19. Minneapolis: The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport.
LaVoi, N. M., Boucher, C. & Sirek, G. (2020, August). Head coaches of women's collegiate teams: A comprehensive report on NCAA Division-I institutions, 2019-20. Minneapolis: The Tucker Center for Research on Girls & Women in Sport.
LaVoi, N. M., & Wasend, M. K. (2018, July). Athletic administration best practices of recruitment, hiring and retention of female collegiate coaches. Retrieved from: http://www.cehd.umn.edu/tuckercenter/research/
Madera, J. M., Dawson, M., & Neal, J. A. (2018). Why investing in diversity management matters: Organizational attraction and person–organization fit. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 42(6), 931-959. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348016654973
Norman, L. (2016). Lesbian coaches and homophobia. In N. M. LaVoi (Ed.), Women in sports coaching (pp. 65-80). New York, NY: Routledge.
Pierce, D. A., Johnson, J. E., Krohn, B. D., & Judge, L. W. (2017). Who should we hire?: Examining coaching succession in NCAA division-I women’s basketball. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 12(2), 151-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954117694732
Raedeke, T., Warren, A., & Granzyk, T. (2002). Coaching commitment and turnover: a comparison of current and former coaches. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 73(1), 73-86. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2002.10608994
Ryan, T. D., & Sagas, M. (2009). Relationships between pay satisfaction, work-family conflict, and coaching turnover intentions. Team Performance Management, 15(3/4), 128-140. https://doi.org/10.1108/13527590910964919
Schenewark, J. D. & Dixon, M. A. (2012). A dual model of work-family conflict and enrichment in collegiate coaches. Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 5, 15-39.
Staurowsky, E.J., Zonder, E.J., & Riemer, B.A. (2017). So, what is Title IX? Assessing college athletes’ knowledge of the law. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 25(1), 30–42. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.2015-0048
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2013). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2013. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03122013.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2014). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2014. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03112014.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2015). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2015. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03102015.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2016). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2016. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03172016.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2017). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2017. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03162017.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2018. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03162018.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2019). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2019. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03152019.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2020). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03172020.pdf
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2021). Job openings and labor turnover – January 2021. Retrieved from https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/jolts_03112021.pdf
Wicker, P., Orlowski, J., & Breuer, C. (2018). Coach migration in German high performance sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 18(1), 93-111. https://doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2017.1354902
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Nicole M. LaVoi, Hannah Silva-Breen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC-BY-NC-ND) License
1. License. You retain the copyright for your work. You here by grant to us a worldwide, non-exclusive, perpetual, irrevocable, royalty-free, sublicensable license to:
• Reproduce, distribute and display the edited manuscript in the Journal of Intercollegiate Sport (and other publications prepared by us or on our behalf) in any media now or hereafter known (including without limitation electronic publications such as the Internet, Google Scholar, and social media)
We do not restrict your distribution or use of the manuscript following publication in the Journal of Intercollegiate Sport (in fact, we encourage it!). However, we have the right to publish the manuscript first on the journal website. Thus, the foregoing licenses are exclusive to us prior to our publication of the manuscript. You confirm that you have disclosed to us all previous or pending public disseminations of the manuscript, including without limitation any publications or acceptances by other journals or disseminations via websites or conference proceedings.
2. Other Confirmations. You confirm that you are the manuscripts sole author(s); you have the right to convey the foregoing licenses; the manuscript does not infringe any third party copyright, publicity/privacy right or other proprietary right; and the manuscript is not defamatory or otherwise unlawful. You shall defend and indemnify us against all claims based on any alleged breach of your confirmations in this contract.
Compensation: You will receive one (1) free copy (PDF) of the article published online in the Journal of Intercollegiate Sport. You will receive no royalty or other monetary return from the Journal of Intercollegiate Sport for use of the article. You do, however, have our extreme gratitude!
3. Entire Contract. This contract is the sole and exclusive agreement between the parties regarding the manuscript and supersedes all prior conversations and understandings regarding its subject matter. This contract may be modified or supplemented only by a mutually signed writing.